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牛津 模块二 Unit3重点词汇 知识梳理学案(上)

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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一、重要词汇(单词+词组)

词汇   1.【教材原句】He was bright and curious about the world outside his home town. 

他天资聪颖,对家乡之外的世界充满了好奇。

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解句中               curious 的含义

(1)The boy was curious about the trees reflected in the water.

(2)The explorer was curious to go on an adventure travel to Africa.

(3)She had a curious feeling-he was just in the surrounding area.

(4)It was very curious that she left without saying goodbye.

(5)She decided to follow him out of curiosity.

(6)Curiously enough, a year later, the same thing happened again.

1. 这个男孩对水中倒映出的树感到好奇。

2. 这位探险家急于去非洲进行探险旅行。

3. 她有一种奇怪的感觉——他就在附近地区。

4. 他没道别就离开了,真奇怪。

5. 出于好奇,她决定跟踪他。

6. 真是奇怪,一模一样的事情一年以后又发生了。

【归纳小结】

curious  词性:   adj. 词义:    求知欲强的,好奇的;稀奇古怪的,奇特的,难以解释的

固定搭配:

be curious about/to do                              对…感到好奇/ 渴望、急于做某事

It is/was curious that…                              奇怪的是···

【单词积累】

curiosity n. 好奇心,求知欲;珍品,奇物                  curiously adv.  好奇地,奇怪地

【拓展】
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out of curiosity                   出于好奇

curiously enough                 真是奇怪(修饰整个句子)

satisfy/arouse one’s curiosity                             满足/唤起某人的好奇心


词汇   2.【教材原句】In 1891, at the age of 17, he set sail for Alexandria, Egypt. 

1891 年,在   17 岁的时候,他扬帆远航到了埃及的亚历山大。

set sail                   扬帆,起航

表示“启航前往···”时,其后常用介词                   for

无论明天的天气如何,我们的船将启航前往连云港。

                                                                

Whatever the weather is like tomorrow, our ship will set sail for Lianyungang. 

【注意】

set sail for someplace 中的 for 不能换成 to,这一点要记牢。

【学法点拨】表示“到···地方去”用介词                    for 而不是  to 的短语还有:

leave for 动身前往···          head for 朝···去

【拓展】

set about (doing) sth           开始/着手(做)某事

set out to do sth               开始/着手做某事

set…aside                   把···放到一边,搁在一边;省出,留出(钱或时间)

set down                    写下,记下;登记;制定(规则,原则等)

set off (for)…               动身(前往···)

set forth                    出发,动身

set free                     释放

be set in                    以···为背景
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词汇   3.【教材原句】Inside     the tombs, he discovered a great fortune in jewels and gold, 
along with he preserved bodies of dead kings. 

在这些陵墓中,他发现了大量的珠宝和黄金,同时还有已故国王处理过的遗体。

(1)fortune

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解句中               fortune 的含义

(1)One thousand dollars a month is not a fortune but would help cover my living expenses.

(2)I have had the good fortune to work with some brilliant directors.

(3)Fortunately, he is fortunate to have a good chance to make a fortune.

1. 一个月   1000 美元不是一笔巨款,但是能帮助支付我的生活费用。

2. 我有幸与一些才华横溢的导演共事。

3. 幸运的是,他有发财的良机。

【归纳小结】

fortune 词性:            n.【C】词义:                    一大笔钱

       词性:              n.【U】词义:                   机会;运气

【拓展】

make a fortune                发财,赚钱

try one’s fortune               碰运气

have a good/bad fortune                   运气好/不好

seek one’s fortune                        找出路;寻找发迹的机会

worth a fortune                     值一大笔钱

【单词积累】

fortunate    adj.    幸运的         fortunately    adv. 幸运地

unfortunate  adj.    不幸的         unfortunately  adv. 不幸地

misfortune   n.  不幸

(2)preserve    
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【例句研读】翻译句子,理解句中               preserve 的含义

(1)Is he really 60? He’s well preserved!

(2)This vase has been preserved perfectly.

(3)At minus 130℃, a living cell can be preserved for a thousand years.

(4)You should preserve your papers from harm.

(5)Efforts to preserve the peace have failed.

1. 他真的   60 岁了吗?他保养得真好!

2. 这个花瓶保存得完好无损。

3. 在零下   130℃,一个活细胞可以保存一千年的时间。

4. 你应当把文件保存好,以防损坏。

5. 维护和平的努力失败了。

【归纳小结】

preserve 词性:         v. 词义:       维持···的原状;保存,保养;保护;维护;保
留

词组:

preserve…from…                          保护···以免···

【单词积累】

preservation  n. 保护,维护;保存,保留;维持,保持

preserver    n. 保护人,维护人,保存者


词汇   4.【教材原句】There, they came across the tomb of King Tutankhamun.

come across                 偶然遇见,发现;被理解,被传达

(1)他在山谷里偶然发现了一些宝石。

He                         in the valley.  

came across some jewels
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(2)你的演讲讲得不明不白,没人听懂你的意思。

Your speech                      . Nobody understood your opinion.  

 didn’t come across

【拓展】表示“偶遇”的短语还有:

run across, meet with, happen to meet, run into, meet…by chance.

【链接】

come about           (某情况)发生                come out          出版;出现;开花

come to               达到;总共                 come along        到达;赶快

come up               被提及,被讨论                come up with      找到(答案)


词汇   5.【教材原句】‘The tomb continued more treasure than any of us had ever seen before, 
as well as the mummy of the king,’ said Carter.

“除了国王的木乃伊之外,这座陵墓还藏有大量的珍宝,比我们任何人先前见到过的都要
多。”卡特说。

【句法分析】句中        than 为连词,引导比较状语从句。

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解             as well as 的含义与用法

(1)He grows flowers as well as vegetables.

(2)The child is lively as well as healthy.

(3)English, as well as other subjects, is of great importance.

(4)She sings as well as playing the guitar.

1. 他既种菜也种花。

2. 这个孩子既健康又活泼。

3. 同其他科目一样,英语也很重要。

4. 除了弹吉他外,她还唱歌。

【归纳小结】

as well as                          除···之外,也,还(强调          as well as 之前的部分)
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【学法点拨】as      well as 连接并列主语时,谓语动词的数与前面的主语保持一致;若连接并
列谓语,后一个动词用动名词形式;若连接两个动词不定式,则第一个带                               to,第二个不带
to。

我们不仅指望她照看孩子,而且指望她做家务。

We expect her to do housework                                 .  

as well as look after the children

【注意】

①和   as well as 一样,连接并列主语时,强调前者,谓语动词的数与前面的主语保持一致
的还有:

rather than, with, along with, together with, but, expect 等。

我认为是露西而不是莉莉要发表一篇小说。

                                                

I think Lucy, rather than Lily, is to publish a novel.

②not only…but also…侧重点在后面,连接两个主语时,谓语动词与后面的主语保持一致。

不但老师而且学生也将近距离地观看野生动植物。

                                               

Not only the teacher but also the students will see the wildlife up close.


词汇   6.【教材原句】Afterward, all of its contents would go into a museum. 

此后,其所有的东西都要收进博物馆。

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解             content 的词性与含义

(1)Fire has caused severe damage to the contents of the building.

(2)The contents of the document remain secret.

(3)He looked through the contents page before reading the book.

(4)He is content with his present life.
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(5)John was content to explore the ancient tombs with other explorers.

(6)The parents were content that their son made a fortune at a young age by working hard.

(7)He contents himself with a glass of beer every day.

1. 大火导致那栋大楼里的东西严重损毁。

2. 文件的内容仍然保密。

3. 读这本书之前他浏览了一下目录页。

4. 他对现在的生活挺满意。

5. 约翰愿意和其他的探险家去探索古墓。

6. 父母对他们儿子年纪轻轻就通过努力工作赚了一大笔钱感到满意。

【归纳小结】

content  词性:             n.  词义:                  所容纳的东西;文字作品的主题
内容

        词性:             adj.  词义:                满意的;满足的

        词性:             v.    词义:               使···满意或满足

固定搭配:

(1)be content with…                       对···感到满意

(2)be content to do sth.                     对做某事感到满足;愿意做某事

(3)be content that…                     满意于···

(4)content oneself with…                      使自己对···满足

【拓展】

be satisfied/pleased with… 对···感到满意


词汇   7.【教材原句】At the moment of Carnarvon’s death, the lights went out in Cairo, the 
capital of Egypt. 

在卡那封勋爵病死的那一刻,埃及首都开罗所有的电灯突然熄灭。

(1)death     
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n. [U]  死,死亡;    [C] 死亡的事例

【拓展】

beat sb. to death                    把某人打死

sentence sb. to death                    判处某人死刑

be bored/frightened to death                     厌烦得/吓得要死

(2)go out                      (灯,火等)熄灭;出去

①灯突然灭了,我也不知道为什么。

                                               

The light suddenly went out and I didn’t know why.

②她晚上经常出去,在公园里跳舞。

                                               

She goes out a lot in the evening, dancing in the park. 

【链接】

(1)go ahead      先走,发生,进行                  (2)go along           继续,进展

(3)go back              返回;追溯到              (4)go by      过去,流逝

(5)go down      下降,倒下                        (6)go off         爆炸,离开;熄
灭

(7)go on         持续;出场                       (8)go round        流传,传播

(9)go up         上升,上涨                       (10)go over  仔细检查,反复研究

(11)go after         追求,追赶                   (12)go in for      参加,爱好

(13)go through       接受,达成,审查                (14)go with         同意


词汇   8.【教材原句】He too visited the tomb, only to catch a high fever the next day.

 他也去了陵墓,结果第二天就发高烧。

【句法分析】only to do sth.   用作结果状语,意为“不料,竟然,结果却···”。
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(1)他一路冲往车站,结果还是错过了火车。

   He rushed all the way to the station                       .  

   only to miss the train

(2)那位探险家乘船向那个神秘的小岛驶去,结果在海上迷路了。

The explorer set sail for the mysterious island,                        . 

only to be lost at the sea

【注意】动词不定式作结果状语时,往往表示出乎意料的或不想要的结果,不定式前常加
only;现在分词作结果状语时,往往表示自然而然的或意料之中的结果。

(1)我到了商店却发现钱落在家里了。

I arrived at the shop                      I’d left my money at home.   

 only to find

(2)他因为起床晚了,所以早餐动都没动就匆忙赶往办公室了。

He got up late and hurried to his office,                           .  

leaving the breakfast untouched


词汇   9.【教材原句】Carter’s secretary, Richard Bethell, died of heart trouble four months 
after the tomb was opened. 

卡特的秘书理查德·贝塞尔打开陵墓                4 个月后死于心脏病。

die of                     因···而死,死于···

The old man died of hunger and cold, because his son deserted him.

那位老人死于饥饿和寒冷,因为他的儿子遗弃了他。

【单词积累】

die   vi 死,死亡    

dead  adj. 死的,无生命的

dying   adj. 临死的,垂死的

deadly   adj. 致死的    adv. 非常,极其
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【辨析】die of    与 die from


  易混词组              共同点               不同点                  举例

                                 指由于饥饿寒冷、          die of hunger and cold/old 
    die of                        衰老或感情造成          age/joy/disappointment/gr
              意思都是“因…而死”的死亡多用               die of        ief/fear
              ,后面接死亡的原因
              做宾语。指因某种疾          如果指由于事故、
              病而死时,两者都可           环境造成的间接
                                                     die from a wound/an 
              用。比如                死亡,如死于枪
                      die from/of                       accident/an 
   die from                       伤、虚弱、过度
                heart disease; die                 earthquake/overwork/wea
                                  劳累、饮食过度
               from/of lung cancer                    kness/polluted air
                                  及空气污染等多
                                    用  die from


【拓展】

die for                      为···而死

die off                      相继死去(其后不能接宾语)

die down                     (火)渐熄,(骚动等)渐渐平息

die away                     渐弱;消逝(尤指声音)

die out                       灭绝,消失


词汇   10.【教材原句】Within     seven years, 21 people who had something to do with the 
opening of the tomb died. 

7 年间,与陵墓发掘工作有关的人员之中有                 21 人死亡。

【例句研读】理解句中          within 的词性与含义

(1)Within one year, I came across that famous explorer twice.

(2)The dog that died of illness was buried within the walls of the garden.
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1. 在一年的时间里,我遇到过那位著名的探险家两次。

2. 那条病死的狗被埋在花园的围墙之内。

【归纳小结】

within 词性:            prep.  词义:                在……之内

【拓展】

within the reach of…                     在···够得着的地方

within doors                  室内

in/within sight                可以看见;在视线内

within one’s power                  力所能及

(2)have something to do with…                       与···有关系

他的病与他吸烟有关系。

                                                        

His illness has something to do with his smoking.

【链接】

have nothing to do with…                          与···无关

have much to do with…                            与···有很大的关系

have little to do with…                             与···几乎没有关系


词汇   11.【教材原句】Some people say the deaths were just coincidence.

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解             coincidence 的含义

(1)What a coincidence! I wasn’t expecting to see you here.

(2)It was a happy coincidence that Robert arrived at the same time.

1. 真巧!我没料到会在这里遇见你。

2. 让人开心的是罗伯特正巧也在这个时候到了。

【归纳小结】
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coincidence 词性:             n.  [C,U] 词义:                 (令人吃惊的)巧合;
(偶然的)一致,符合

词组:

by coincidence           出于巧合,偶然地      =             by chance/accident


词汇   12.【教材原句】Others believe that they were in connection with a mummy’s curse, as 
a punishment for those who enter the resting place of the dead. 

另一些人则相信这与木乃伊的诅咒有关,是对闯入亡灵安息地的人的惩罚。

(1)connection

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解句中               connection 的含义

(1)The police are questioning a man in connection with the incident. 

(2)He has a direct connection with the attack.

(3)I’m having problems with my Internet connection.

1. 警察正在审问一名与此事有关的男子。

2. 他与这次袭击有直接的关系。

3. 我的互联网连接有问题。

【归纳小结】

connection  词性:          n.  词义:                    联系,关联;联结;接通;连
接

固定搭配:

(1)in connection with…                      与···有关;关于

(2)have a connection with…                  与···有关

【单词积累】

connect v.  连接,接通;把···联系起来

【注意】当主语是人时,connect          后既可以跟     with,也可以跟     to,但当主语时物时,
connect 后只能跟   with。
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(1)我们必须把这一根电线和那一根电线连接起来。

                                                

We must connect this wire with/to that one. 

(2)这一根电线连接了那一根电线。

                                                

This wire connects with that one. 

【链接】

be related to… 与···有关

He is said to have been related to his wife’s disappearance.

据说他与他妻子的失踪有关。

(1)punishment                       n. [C,U] 惩罚,处罚,刑罚

他足够幸运,没受到惩罚。

                                               

He was lucky enough to escape from punishment.


词汇   13.【教材原句】When a tomb is opened, fresh air disturbs the viruses.

【句法分析】本句是主从复合句,when               引导时间状语从句。

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解句中的                disturb 含义

(1)If you find a bird’s nest, never disturb the eggs.

(2)I’m sorry to disturb you so early.

(3)The letter shocked and disturbed me.

1. 如果你发现鸟巢,千万别动那些鸟蛋。

2. 抱歉这么早打扰你。

3. 这封信使我感到震惊和不安。

【归纳小结】
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disturb 词性:       vt. 词义:         移动,搅乱,弄乱;打扰,干扰;使某人烦恼或不
安

【单词积累】

undisturbed   adj. 安静的,未被扰乱的


【辨析】disturb, interrupt 与  bother


        易混词                        辨析                           例句

                       表示对别人或别的事物造成干扰,               Don’t disturb your father. He’s 
        disturb        引起不安、骚动或烦恼,但不一                busy writing a report.
                            定影响事情的进展。

                       意为“打断、插嘴”,指通过言               Sorry to interrupt, but there’s 
       interrupt       语或行为影响别人,使当前的情               someone to see you.
                                 况中断。

                       意为“麻烦,打扰,使人烦恼不               What troubles me is that I can’t get 
        trouble        安”,表示相当严重的困惑或给               my  English improved in a short 
                            人带来很大的不便。               time.

                       主动语态里指有意的“烦恼”,               I’m sorry to bother you, but could 
        bother         被动语态里则指暂时的、无关紧               you tell me the way to the station?
                               要的“打扰”


词汇   14.【教材原句】If breathed in, they can result in illness or even death. 

如果被吸入,它们就可能导致疾病甚至死亡。

【句法分析】本句是主从复合句。If              引导条件状语从句且为省略结构。

状语从句中的省略         在含有时间、条件或让步状语从句的复合句中,如果从句的主语和主句
的主语相同,或者从句主语为             it,且从句中谓语含有        be 时,可以省略从句中的主语和            be。

(1)在河边漫步时,我看到了水里映出的建筑物。

                               , I saw the buildings reflected in the water.   
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While wandering on the river bank

(2)如果可能的话,我将出版一本关于人与自然和谐相处的书。

              , I will punish a book about harmony between man and nature.  

 If possible

【注意】在此语法中,主从句主语必须相同或者从句主语为                         it,否则不能省略。

当探索陡峭的山谷的时候,我把袖子划破了。

                               , I had my sleeve cut.   

While exploring the steep valley

(2)breathe    

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解             breathe 的含义

(1)In the mountain we can breathe the fresh air.

(2)Practicing breathing in and out can be good for your health.

(3)At the mountaintop, people breathe hard/heavily.

1. 在山里,我们能呼吸新鲜的空气。

2. 练习吸气和呼气对你的健康有益。

3. 在山顶,人们呼吸困难。

【归纳小结】

breathe 词性:           v. 词义:                呼吸,吸入或呼出(空气等)

短语:

breathe in/out                     吸气/呼气

breathe hard/heavily                    大口喘气,费力喘气

【单词积累】

breath   n.    呼吸      breathing   n.  呼吸

breathless   adj.  气喘吁吁的,上气不接下气的

【链接】
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hold/catch one’s breath                  屏息

waste one’s breath                     白费口舌

lose one’s breath                      喘不过气来

be out of breath                       上气不接下气

short of breath                        呼吸急促

take a deep breath                     做深呼吸

(3)result in                   造成,导致

雾霾天气导致了航班的延误。

The hazy weather                              .   resulted in the delay of the flights

【链接】

as a result          结果                  as a result of        由于;作为···的结
果

result from        由···产生;由···引起                without result           毫无结果
地

【注意】

result in =             lead to   result from =              lie in

他的慵懒造成了他的失败。也就是说,他的失败是因为他的慵懒。 

His laziness                    . In other words, his failure                      . 

resulted in his failure;resulted from his laziness


词汇   15.【教材原句】All my years of training as an explorer have finally paid off!

pay off                           成功,凑效,达到目的,得到回报;付清,还债

【例句研读】翻译句中          pay off 的意思

(1)My years of hard work have finally paid off.                        

(2)Teamwork paid off.                                            

(3)We paid off our debts after fifteen years.                           
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(4)He finally paid his overdraft off.                                  

1. 我多年的努力工作终于得到了回报。

2. 团队合作成功了。

3. 15 年后我们还清了欠款。

4. 他终于还清了透支款。

【拓展】

pay back                     还钱;报复

pay out                      付巨款

pay for                      付···的贷款

pay up                      总算付清全部债款

pay attention to                     注意

pay its way                        收支平衡


词汇   16.【教材原句】Within     the tomb, whichever way we looked there was a fortune in 
gold and treasure.

whichever  pron.  无论哪个;无论哪些

Whichever side wins, I’ll be content to present an award to them. 无论哪一方赢,我都愿意给
他们颁奖。

【注意】whichever    与 no matter which 都为“无论哪个,无论哪些”,都可引导让步状语
从句;但    whichever 除了可以引导让步状语从句外,还可以引导名词性从句,在从句中作
主语、宾语或表语。

(1)她要买商店里最便宜的东西。

She’ll buy                      in the shop.  whichever is the cheapest

(2)我有    3 辆车,你喜欢哪辆开哪辆。

I have 3 cars and you can drive                   .  whichever you like

(3)不管用哪种方法,结果将是一样的。
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                , the result will be the same.    No matter which/Whichever means is used


词汇   17.【教材原句】sent last radio signal

【例句研读】翻译句子,理解句中               signal 的词性与含义

(1)At an arranged signal all the lights went out.

(2)Did you signal before you turned right?

(3)She signaled that it was time to leave.  

(4)This announcement signaled a clear change of policy.

1. 被安排好的信号一发出,灯就全灭了。

2. 右转弯前你示意了吗?

3. 她示意该走了。

4. 这个声明表明政策有明显的变化。

signal 词性:         n.  词义:               信号,手势,声音,暗号

      词性:           v.  词义:               发信号,发暗号,示意;标志,表明,预
示

【辨析】signal, symbol, sign 与 mark


易混词                      辨析                                   例句

                                              Body language can give away a lot about 
         指“信号、暗号”等,常指约定俗成、用
                                              your mood, so standing with your arms 
 signal  于传达某些信息的信号,也指灯光、声音
                                              folded can send out a signal that you are 
                      或信号标志
                                              being defensive.

         “符号,象征”,指被人们选出来的物体                   White has always been a symbol of purity 
symbol   或图案,用来代表另一事物,并作为该事                   in Western cultures.
                    物的标记或象征
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         表示“符号,记号”时可以同             signal 互换  Dark clouds are usually a sign of rain.
         使用;另外,它表示“告示,牌示”时,
  sign                                        Don’t ignore the fog warning signs.
         侧重指用图画、文字表达的告示、图示;
              它还可以表示“迹象,征兆”

         “标志,标记”,指事物留下的深刻印迹                   Who  made these dirty marks on my new 
 mark
            或某物上用于辨别该物品的附属物                   book?


词汇   18.【教材原句】The      captain, who had received warnings about icebergs all day, had 
dismissed the warnings as they arrived.

warning                  n. [C,U] 警示,警告,先兆 

                        adj.   警告的

Doctors regarded it as a warning signal of health problems. 医生们把它看到健康问题的警示信
号。

【链接】

warn sb. of/against sth.                       提醒某人某事;警告某人某事

warn sb. (not) to do sth.                       提醒某人(不)做某事

warn sb. that…                              提醒某人···

The police have warned them of possible delays. 警方已经通知他们可能会延期。


二、重要语法

1. 过去完成时的用法

过去完成时主要用来表示比过去某一时间更早发生的动作或存在的状态,简言之,即“过
去的过去”。其结构为“助动词              had+动词的过去分词”


(1)    过去完成时的用法

A.表示在过去某一时刻或动作之前已完成的动作或状态。
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When the explorer hurried to the destination, the others had already left.

B.表示在过去一段时间内某动作或状态的持续。

He told us that he had done the scientific research for 5 years.


C.表示过去未实现的计划或愿望。常用的动词有                     hope, expect, suppose, think, want, intend, 
mean, plan 等。

I had never thought that you were content to help me.


D.过去完成时还常在主句是一般过去时的间接引语中使用。

直接引语      “All of the content in the tomb went into a museum,” he said.

间接引语      He said that all of the contents in the tomb had gone into a museum.


E.过去完成时还可表示在过去的两个动作/事件中,其中一个先于另一个发生,但是两个
过去的动作/事件相隔时间不长。

Shortly after he had reached the mountaintop, he saw the sunrise.

(2)过去完成时的时间状语

A.after, at, before, by, since, until 等构成的介词短语

I wondered how he had made up such an amazing story before noon.

They had constructed a new bridge in the valley by the end of last month.


B.after, as soon as, before, since, when, until 等引导的时间状语从句

The captain had remained all the equipment before the ship set sail.

He didn’t leave the lab until he had checked all the data.


C.already, yet, ever, before, never 等副词(作状语)

He had already known the truth before I told him.
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He has never seen better-preserved insect fossils before.

(3)在含有     as soon as, after, before, when, until 等连词的表示过去时态的符合句中,若主
从句动作不同时发生,先发生的就用过去完成时;若两个动作紧接着发生或几乎同时,则
皆用一般过去时。

He left before I had (had) the chance to apologize to him.

(4)在“It was the first time + 从句”, “It was + 一段时间+ since 从句”等结构中,从句必须
使用过去完成时。

It was the first time that he had been given such a good chance.

It was 5 months since he had returned.

(5)hardly/scarcely/rarely…when/before… 和 no sooner…than…等结构中,主句必须使用
过去完成时。

He had no sooner come across his English teacher than he went out.

(6)在表示过去动作先于主句动作发生的宾语从句中,用过去完成时。

He told me he had watched the sunrise at the top of Mount Tai.

(7)在时间、条件状语从句中,用过去完成时代替过去将来完成时。

He was told many times that he shouldn’t give up unless he had made his greatest effort.

2.  现在完成时与过去完成时的用法比较

(1)现在完成时表示过去的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,常用来表示与现在仍有关系的
过去的事物。

He has received punishment as a result of telling a lie.

His coming has disturbed my schedule.

(2)过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,即表示在过去某一时间或动作之前完成的动作或存
在的状态,是以过去某一时间为基准的。

He had known the customs and living habits of the local people in advance before he came here.

He got home and suddenly realized he had left his key in the car.
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