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18-19人教版 必修一 Unit 5 Section Ⅱ Language Points(Ⅰ)(eading & Comprehending)

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Section Ⅱ Language Points(Ⅰ)(Warming 
         Up,Pre­Reading,Reading & 
                     Comprehending)

                           [语  言  基  础  自  测]

    Ⅰ.单词拼写
    根据汉语或首字母提示,写出下列单词

    1.—Do you know when the People's Republic of China was founded(成立)?

    —On October 1,1949.
    2.The  boss was attacked(抨击)by the newspapers for not caring about the 
workers.
    3.I am not very hopeful(怀有希望的)about the plan.
    4.In the past,the black people in the USA had no right to vote(选举).
    5.She is generous(慷慨的)and often helps the poor.
    6.This kind of washing powder(洗衣粉)is of good quality,and doesn't harm 
our hands.
    7.He is determined to devote his life to science.
    8.As  a student,Tom is very active in class.For example,he often answers 

teachers' questions.
    9.Divide the cake into equal parts.
    10.Tom is rich,but he is very mean.He never lends his money to others.

    Ⅱ.拓展词汇
    根据词性和汉语提示,写出下列单词

    1.quality n.质量;品质;性质→qualified adj.具备……的学历

    2.active adj.积极的;活跃的→actively adv.积极地→activity n.活动
    3.generous    adj.慷慨的;大方的→generously         adv.慷慨地;不吝啬地

→generosity n.慷慨的;大方的
    4.peace  n.安静;平静;和平→peaceful            adj.和平的;平静的;安宁的
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

→peacefully adv.和平地;平静地
    5.devote vt.献身;专心于→devoted       adj.忠诚的;深爱的→devotion       n.奉
献;忠诚

    [寻规律、巧记忆]1
                 n.+ful→adj              v.+(e)d→adj.
          successful 成功的           interested 感到有趣的
          faithful 忠实的             developed 发达的
          joyful 高兴的               amazed 感到惊讶的

    Ⅲ.补全短语
    根据提示补全下列短语

    1.be active in                在……积极;活跃
    2.be generous with            对……慷慨
    3.out of work                 失业
    4.under attack                遭受进攻
    5.as a matter of fact         事实上
    6.blow up                     使充气;爆炸
    7.be equal to                 与……相等;胜任……
    8. in trouble                 在危险、受罚、痛苦、忧虑等的处境中
    9.turn to                     求助于;致力于
    10.be willing to              乐意……

    Ⅳ.选词填空
    选用上述短语的适当形式填空

    1.I'm not sure whether/if she would be willing to meet us.
    2.As a matter of fact,loss of sleep can make you look tired,and even cause 
you to put on weight.
    3.The terrorists are threatening to blow up the embassy(大使馆).
    4.After being out of work for three months,I am anxious to start my new job.
    5.I don't think he is equal to the position.

    [寻规律、巧记忆]2
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

               in+n.→介词短语                to 作介词的短语
           in danger 处于危险中          look forward to 期盼
           in debt 负债               pay attention to 注意
           in power 当权              lead to 导致

     Ⅴ.经典句式仿写
     1.“...we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were 
 less important,or fight the government.”“……我们被置于这样一个境地:要么
 我们被迫接受低人一等的现实,要么跟政府作斗争。”

     [记句式结构]“either...or...”意为“要么……要么……;不是……就是……”
     [仿写促落实]Put this dictionary either on the bookshelf or on the desk.
     把这本词典放在书架上或桌子上。

     2.He was the first man to land on the moon in July 1969.他于 1969 年 7 月
 成了第一个登上月球的人。
     [记句式结构]序数词+名词+不定式

     [仿写促落实]Li Ming was the third to arrive.
     李明是第三个到达的。

     3.“The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our 
 rights and progress,until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no 

rights at all.”“过去 30 年来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利,阻挡我们的进
步,一直到今天,我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。”

     [记句式结构]无生命事物作           see,find,witness 的主语往往意为“经历,见
 证了……”

     [仿写促落实]Dusk saw the little boy wandering in the street.黄昏时,这个小
 男孩在街上闲逛。

     4.“...only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.”“……只有
到这个时候,我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。”

     [记句式结构]“Only+状语”位于句首用倒装
     [仿写促落实]Only then did I realize the mistakes I had made.
     只有到那时我才意识到我所犯的错误。

                            [核  心  要  点  探  究]
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

      quality n.质量;性质;品质

    (教材  P33)And what qualities does a great person have?并且一个伟人有什么
样的品质呢?

    (1)Error!可作定语或表语
    in quality  在质量上
    (2)形近意异词:quantity n.数量;大量

    ①One quality of wood is that it can burn.
    木材的一项特质就是能燃烧。

    ②Wine of high quality costs more than that of poor quality.
    优质酒比劣质酒花费多。

    ③I only need a small quantity of books.
    我只需要少量的书。

    注意:quality  作“质量”讲时通常用作不可数名词;而作“品质”讲时多
用作可数名词。

      mean adj.吝啬的;自私的;卑鄙的;刻薄的
    v.意思是;意欲;打算;意味着

    (1)be mean to sb.             对某人刻薄
    (2)mean to do sth.            打算做某事
    mean doing                    意味着……
    be meant for                  本应为;注定要成为
    mean no harm                  没有恶意
    (3)means n.                   方式;途径

    ①She's always been mean with money.
    她在花钱方面总是非常吝啬。

    ②She was never meant for a nurse.
    她根本就不是当护士的料。

    ③Don't be so mean to your little brother!
    别对你弟弟那么刻薄!

    ④Success,then,means never feeling(feel) tired.
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     成功意味着永不疲倦。           【导学号:11132051】

       devote vt.(与 to 连用)献身;专心于

     (教材  P33)A great person is someone who devotes his/her life to helping others.
     伟人是把自己的一生致力于帮助别人的人。

     (1)devote...to(doing)sth.     把……献给(做)某事
     devote oneself to=be devoted to
                                   献身于;专心致力于

     (2)devoted adj.               忠实的;深爱的
     (3)devotion n.                奉献;关爱

     ①He devoted himself entirely to education.
     他将一生奉献给了教育事业。

     ②Qian Xuesen has been devoted to China's aerospace all his life.
     钱学森将其一生奉献给了中国的航空航天事业。

     ③Neighbors devoted their spare time to helping(help) others rebuild.
     邻居们利用他们的业余时间帮助他人重建。

       (教材  P34)However,this was a time when one had got to have a passbook 
 to live in Johannesburg.
     可是,那个时候你要想住在约翰内斯堡就非得要有身份证不可。

     【要点提炼】 This is/was a time when...“这是一个……的时期”。

     (1)There was a time when...   曾有一段时间……
     (2)at a/the time when...      在……的时候

     ①At the time when I saw him,he was very young.
     当初我见到他的时候,他还很年轻。

     ②There was a time when women were not allowed to go to school.
     曾经有一段时间,妇女不被允许去上学。

       out of work 失业

     (教材  P34)Sadly I did not have one because I was not born there,and I worried 
about whether I would become out of work.
     可悲的是,我没有身份证,因为我不是在那里出生的,因而我担心我会失
 业。
           中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(1)at work                    在工作;运转着
off work                      没有上班;在休假
(2)work out                   解决;计算出;结果是
work on                       继续工作;从事
work with                     与……共事,与……合作
(3)out of order               混乱;无秩序;有毛病
out of date                   过时
out of danger                 脱离危险
out of breath                 上气不接下气

①Work hard,or you will be out of work.
好好干,不然你会失业的。

②The young man often plays basketball when he is off work.
下班后这个年轻人经常打篮球。

③The machine was out of order.
这台机器出了故障。

  vote vt.& vi.投票;选举  n.投票;选票;表决

(教材  P34)Black people could not vote or choose their leaders.
黑人没有选举权,他们无权选择他们的领导人。

vote on                       就……投票
vote for/against              投票赞成/反对
vote to do sth.               投票去做某事

①We voted to decide(decide)whether the meeting was to be held on Sunday.
我们投票决定周日是否开会。

②Whether you vote for or against the plan doesn't seem to matter very much.
你赞成还是反对这项计划似乎不重要。

  attack vt.进攻;攻击;抨击;(疾病等的)侵害

(教材  P34)We chose to attack the laws.
我们选择向法律进攻。

(1)attack sb.for(doing)sth.   因(做)某事而责难某人
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     be attacked with              患/得(病)
     (2)make an attack on/against  攻击;袭击;抨击
     under attack                  遭到攻击;遭到抨击
     a heart attack                一次心脏病发作

     ①The newspapers made an attack on/upon the Prime Minister because of the 
new law.
     由于这项新法令的颁布,各报纸纷纷对首相进行抨击。

     ②The city came under attack during the night.
     城市在夜间遭到袭击。

     ③He was attacked(attack)with disease;this was why he was absent.
     他患病了,这就是他没来的原因。

       (教材  P34)...only then did we decide to answer violence with 
 violence.
     ……只有到这个时候,我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。

     【要点提炼】 “only+副词”置于句首时,句子部分用部分倒装。

     当“only+副词/介词短语”置于句首时,后面句子要用部分倒装,即把助
 动词、系动词或情态动词提到主语的前面。

     ①Only in this way can you solve this problem.
     只有用这种方法,你才能解决这个问题。

     ②Only when I left my parents for Italy did I realize how much I loved them.
     只有当我离开父母去意大利时我才意识到我多么爱他们。
     [名师点津] 

                               only 的小陷阱
     (1)当 only 修饰状语从句时,主句部分倒装,被               only 修饰的状语从句部分
不倒装。
     (2)only 不置于句首不倒装。

     (3)当 only 修饰主语时,句子不用倒装。

       equal adj.相等的;平等的      n.相等的人;同等物        vt.比得上;胜过;等于;
和……相等
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    (教材  P34)But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our 
dream of making black and white people equal.
    但是,我乐意帮忙,因为我知道,这是为了实现我们的黑人和白人平等的
梦想。

    (1)be equal to                与……相等;能胜任

    (2)Error!                     无敌;没有能比得上的
    (3)equal sb.in...             在……方面比得上某人

    (4)equally adv.               相同地;相等地
    (5)equality n.                平等

    ①Learning to deal with the social world is equally important.
    学会应对社交世界是同等重要的。

    ②Nobody can equal him in intelligence.
    没有人在智力方面能比得上他。

    ③In spelling,she had no equal(equal).
    在拼写方面没有人能比得上她。

    ④They are of equal height,but I think Robert is equal to the job.
    虽然他们水平一般高,但我认为罗伯特能胜任这项工作。
                                                 【导学号:11132052】

      in trouble 在危险、受罚、痛苦、忧虑等的处境中

    (教材  P35)Elias went to see Nelson Mandela when he was in trouble.
    当他身处困境时伊莱亚斯去见了纳尔逊·曼德拉。

    get(...)into trouble          (使……)陷入困境
    have trouble/difficulty(in)doing sth./with sth.
                                  做某事有困难

    take the trouble to do sth.   不辞劳苦做某事
    make trouble                  制造麻烦
    ask for trouble               找麻烦

    ①Don't make trouble with me!
    别跟我捣乱!
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     ②You  could ask the teacher for help when you have trouble/difficulty in 
 learning English.
     当你学英语有困难时,你可以向老师寻求帮助。

     ③He took the trouble to gather the materials for me.
     他不辞辛劳地为我收集资料。

       turn  to 求助于;致力于;翻到(书的某页);查阅;转向;从事
 于

     (教材  P35)Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to make black 
and white people equal?
     纳尔逊·曼德拉为什么求助于暴力,以达到黑人和白人的平等?
               写出下列句中       turn to 的含义

     ①He was the one I always turned to for strength.求助于

     ②If you turn to Page 40,you will find it.翻到

     ③More and more people turn to computer science.从事于

     ④Their talk turned to the change that had happened.转向

     ⑤She often turns to the book for guidance.查阅

     turn around/round             转过去;转身
     turn up                       调高;出现
     turn down                     调低;拒绝
     turn on/off                   打开/关闭
     turn in                       上交
     turn out                      生产;制造;结果是……
     turn over                     翻过来;移交

     ⑥Turn around and let me look at your back.
     转过身去,让我看看你的后背。

     ⑦He tried to join the army but was turned down because of poor health.
     他想参军,但因身体不好被拒绝了。

     ⑧The news turned out to be true.
     那消息被证明是真的。
                中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

     [语境助记] 

     This morning,my grandmother turned on the radio to listen to the news as 
usual.She felt she could not hear clearly,so she turned it up.But it was of no use.She 
had to turn to my father for help.I saw my father turn off the radio and turn it over 

to see what was wrong.It turned out that the button didn't work any more.My father 
repaired it and told my grandmother to turn down the radio,for the neighbor's 
little baby was sleeping.今天早上,祖母像往常一样打开收音机听新闻。她感觉
听不清楚,便把声音调大。但是这不起作用,她只得求助于我父亲。我看到父
亲关掉了收音机并翻过来看哪里出了问题,原来是按钮坏了。我父亲修好按钮
后告诉祖母把声音调小,因为邻居家的小孩儿正在睡觉。

                              [解构长句难句]

     1.(教材   P34)However,this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to 
 live in Johannesburg.
     【分析】 本句是主从复合句。a               time 是先行词,when     引导的是定语从句
 且在从句中作状语。
     【译文】 可是,那个时候你要想住在约翰内斯堡就非得要有身份证不可。


     2.(教材   P34)Sadly I did not have one because I was not born there,and I 
 worried about whether I would become out of work.
     【分析】 本句是并列句。and            连接了两个并列分句,在第一个分句中,
 because 引导的是原因状语从句。在第二个分句中,whether                 引导的是宾语从句。

     【译文】 可悲的是,我没有身份证,因为我不是在那里出生的,因而我
 担心我是否会失业。

     3.(教材   P34)But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve 
our dream of making black and white people equal.
     【分析】 本句是主从复合句。But I was happy to help           是主句。because    引
 导的是原因状语从句,it          would help us achieve our dream of making black and 
 white people equal 是省略了连词   that 的宾语从句。
     【译文】 但是,我乐意帮忙,因为我知道,这是为了实现我们黑人和白
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

人平等的梦想。

                           [随  堂  效  果  落  实]

    Ⅰ.单句语法填空
    1.As a matter of fact,Tom knows what he really wants.
    2.You'd better pay the bill in time,or you're going to be in trouble.
    3.We are at your service.Don't hesitate to turn to us if you have any problems.
    4.Only at that time did (do) I realize I was wrong.
    5.Nowadays  many students devote too much time to playing (play) computer 
games.
    6.Jane is quite equal to doing(do) the difficult job.
    7.He is always the first student to answer(answer) questions in class.
    8.The October of 2005 saw(see) the successful launch of the second manned 
spaceship in China.
    9.He fought for his country to be free from the UK in a peaceful(peace)way.
    10.This new type of machine is of high quality and is not expensive.

    Ⅱ.单句改错(每个句子仅有          1 处错误)
    1.Don't be angry with him,he didn't mean doing it.doing→to do
    2.I devote part of my spare time to play the violin every day. 
                                                 【导学号:11132053】

                                                         play→playing
    3.Someone may think he is not equal to carry out the plan.carry→carrying
    4.He was in the prison for 30 years because of a serious crime.去掉 the
    5.Only when the war was over the young soldier returned to his hometown.

    the young soldier returned→did the young soldier return

    Ⅲ.完成句子
    1.这座石桥见证了这个城市的诸多变化。
    The stone bridge saw many changes of this city.
    2.那个时候,美国依然还有奴隶。
    That was a time when there were still slaves in the USA.
    3.只有在那时,我才有实现梦想的机会。
               中国现代教育网    www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

    Only then did I have a chance to achieve my dream.
    4.他使自己陷入了危险的境地,他有可能无法控制飞机。

    He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he is likely to lose control of 
the plane.
    5.火是如何发生的,有好几种说法。
    There were several theories about the way in which/that the fire started. 
                                                 【导学号:11132054】
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