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专题四    第二节    分类突破
二、转换词汇类
内容索引


                            真题研析

                           微技能突破

                           随堂限时练
真题研析
(2015·江苏)
   People select news in expectation of a reward.This reward may be
either of two kinds.One is related to what Freud calls the Pleasure
Principle,the other to what he calls the Reality Principle.For want of
better names,we shall call these two classes immediate reward and
delayed reward.
   In general,the kind of news which may be expected to give
immediate reward are news of crime and corruption,accidents and
disasters,sports,social events,and human interest.Delayed reward
may be expected from news of public affairs,economic matters,social
problems,science,education,and health.
   News of the first kind pays its rewards at once.A reader can enjoy
an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses involved.He
can tremble wildly at an axe-murder,shake his head sympathetically
and safely at a hurricane,identify himself with the winning team,
laugh understandingly at a warm little story of children or dogs.
    News of the second kind , however , pays its rewards later.It
sometimes requires the reader to tolerate unpleasantness or annoyance—
as,for example,when he reads of the threatening foreign situation,
the mounting national debt , rising taxes , falling market , scarce
housing,and cancer.It has a kind of “threat value”.It is read so that
the reader may be informed and prepared.When a reader selects delayed
reward news,he pulls himself into the world of surrounding reality to
which he can adapt himself only by hard work.When he selects news of
the other kind,he usually withdraws from the world of threatening
reality toward the dream world.
   For any individual,of course,the boundaries of these two classes
are not stable.For example,a sociologist may read news of crime as a
social problem,rather than for its immediate reward.A coach may read
a sports story for its threat value:he may have to play that team next
week.A politician may read an account of his latest successful public
meeting,not for its delayed reward,but very much as his wife reads
an account of a party.In any given story of corruption or disaster,a
thoughtful reader may receive not only the immediate reward of indirect
experience,but also the delayed reward of information and preparedness.
Therefore , while the division of categories holds in general , an
individual’s tendency may transfer any story from one kind of reading
to another,or divide the experience between the two kinds of reward.
                What News Stories Do You Read?
          ·People expect to get 71.rewards/rewarded from reading news.
 Division of ·News stories are roughly divided into two classes.
news stories ·Some news will excite their readers instantly while others 
          won’t.
          ·News of immediate reward will seemingly take their readers 
72.Explanat to the very frightening scene without actual 73.involvement.
 ions of the ·Readers will associate themselves closely with what happens 
 two classes in the news stories and 74.share similar feelings with those 
          involved.
          ·News of delayed reward will make readers suffer,or present 
72.Explanat a 75.threat to them.
 ions of the ·News of delayed reward will induce the reader to 76.prepare
 two classes for the reality while news of immediate reward will lead the 
          reader to 77.withdraw from the reality.
          ·What readers expect from news stories are largely shaped by 
 Unstable 
          their 78.profession(s)/intention.
 boundaries 
          ·Serious readers will both get excited over what happens in 
 of the two 
          some news stories and 79.adapt themselves to the reality.
 classes
          ·Thus,the division,on the whole,80.depends on the reader.
考场思维模式
第一步:读表格,填出较简单的概括词汇题
    文章标题是“你读什么样的新闻故事?”,然后分三部分进行了分
析。其中第72题是概括性词汇,根据其右表信息可知是“两类新闻故事
的解释(说明)”,故第72题填Explanations。注意首字母要大写。
第二步:定位、定词、定性、定形
    任务型阅读表格高度概括了原文信息,为了节约时间并且提高解题
的针对性,先读表格内容,然后在原文中进行定位。定位后进行定词。
定词后要定性(如名词、动词、形容词、副词),最后定形(如单复数、非
谓语形式、大小写等)。
1.原文词汇类
75.根据原文第四段中的“It        has a kind of ‘threat value.’”可知应填
threat。
77.根据原文第四段中的“When         he selects news of the other kind,he
usually withdraws from the world of threatening reality toward the
dream world.”可得到暗示,应填withdraw。
79.此句是对最后一段倒数第二句的转换。这可从第四段中的“he                     pulls
himself into the world of surrounding reality to which he can adapt
himself only by hard work”得到暗示,填adapt。
2.转换词汇类
71.原文reward出现了多次。第一段有a          reward,第三段有rewards,因
此可以知道reward是可数名词。此空只能填一个词,因此填rewards。
另外reward也可用作动词,还可填rewarded,表示被动,意思是“获
得奖赏”。
73.根据表格内容可以将信息定位在原文第三段中的“A                     reader can
enjoy an indirect experience without any of the dangers or stresses
involved.”。其中关键信息是without      any of the dangers or stresses
involved,关键词是involved。原文involved作后置定语,而此空前面是
without actual,后面要填名词形式involvement。
74.此题是将原文第三段中“He         can tremble wildly at an axe-murder,
shake his head sympathetically and safely at a hurricane,identify
himself with the winning team,laugh understandingly at a warm little
story of children or dogs.”信息转换成题目中的“share  similar feelings
with those involved”。
76.根据原文第四段中的“It       is read so that the reader may be informed
and prepared.”可得到暗示,填prepare。
80.最后一段主要讲了这两种分类不是一成不变的,也就是说这取决于
读者,故填depends。
3.概括词汇类
78.文章最后一段提到的sociologist,coach,politician都是不同的职业,
或者说不同的划分取决于不同的目的,故填profession(s)/intention。
第三步:复查并将答案填在答题卡上
    复查完确认没有修改之后,将试卷上所写答案填在答题卡规定区域,
注意要认真书写,不能潦草。
微技能突破
转换词汇类是典型的二次加工题型,需要考生有基本的构词法知识,对
句子成分和词性的对应关系要明确。做题时,不但要找到与试题相关的
句子信息,还要根据词法和句法知识以及上下文的逻辑关系进行加工,
从而提炼出新词。要求考生对已锁定的关键句进行知识重组,运用多种
表达方式,考查考生是否具有遣词造句的能力。常见的转换词汇题可分
为:词形转换、同义(反义)表达、句型转换等。
1.词形转换
词形转换题即用不同的方式表达文中的意义,由于表达的方法不同,被
考查单词在原文和试题中充当的句子成分不同。有时所采用的词性会有
所变化。如,动词与名词的转换、动词与动名词的转换、形容词与副词
的转换、名词与形容词的转换等,有时还涉及短语搭配的考查。
(1)Social isolation is an objective condition in which people have little
communication with others.
=Social isolation means that people hardly communicate with others or
stay alone.
(2)It’s also important for every student to set high academic goals so as
to be able to build a good career.
=Students who want to build a good career should attach importance to
setting high academic goals.
2.同义(反义)表达
同义(反义)表达是指用不同的词组表达同一个意思或是相反的意思。这主
要考查考生灵活运用英语的能力。此项考查要求我们对同义/反义词(组)
互换,单个动词与动词短语的互换,单个副词与短语的互换等。
(1)The use of these resources cannot go on indefinitely—we would run out.
=The vast majority of resources can’t be replaced and they would be
used up.
(2)But they say it’s far from clear that social isolation,not loneliness,
is always the real cause of increased death rate.
=It was still unclear/vague/ambiguous that social isolation rather than
loneliness is the real cause of higher death rate.
(3)You are expected to know that every step counts and that setting up
goals is easy,but following them on a consistent basis is difficult.
=You  should be aware/conscious that it’s difficult to follow your goals
consistently.
3.句型转换
句型转换题指的是用不同的句式表达同一意思。有时是主动语态与被动
语态的互换,有时是采用另外一种句式表达。答题时要抓住核心词汇,
对这些词汇表达进行句式转换,一般为高中阶段常用句式。
(1)When something is thrown away,we lose the natural resources,the
energy and the time which have been used to make the product.
=The  natural resources,the energy and the time used to make the
product become lost when something is thrown away.
(2)Researchers have found that older people with fewer human contacts
are more likely to die.
=Social isolation may increase/raise older people’s risk of death.
(3)Setting goals for completing the daily schedule helps an employee to
finish the assigned tasks and targets in a timely manner.
=By  setting goals,an employee can increase output and performance
instead of delaying completing his or her tasks.
随堂限时练
   Marketers have more options in today’s increasingly multilingual
society—a variety of electronic and print media can address groups of
consumers in different languages.Various factors influence the choice of
media and language.In some cases,it’s simply practical to advertise
in the consumer’s native language,particularly if many of the
consumers in this group are primarily monolingual.In other cases,by
advertising on,say, a Spanish television channel in the US,
an advertiser may earn the respect of the consumer by addressing him in
his native language,as well as develop positive associations with the
medium  and its unique content.Now,marketers have another factor to
consider when deciding where to advertise and in what language.A
paper.Do bilinguals have two personalities? A special case of cultural frame
switching published by researchers at the University of Texas,shows that
bilingual individuals exhibit different personality characteristics when
speaking different languages.
    Lead researcher Nairan Ramirez-Esparza,tested individuals who
were bilingual in English and Spanish for various personality traits,
and found that the subjects answered the questions differently when
asked in English and Spanish.The new work built on past research that
showed the values of subjects changed when they were surrounded by
stimuli from different cultures.
    How can marketers take advantage of “cultural frame switching”? It may
sound challenging without specific research,but at least for Spanish,English
bilinguals in the US , there is now some hard data on the language-related
personality shift.Extrapolating to other language combinations may be possible,
too.Since the Spanish/English bilingual results seem to be in agreement with testing
of monolingual Spanish and English speakers,language-specific testing of bilingual
subjects may not be essential to get an idea of what kind of cultural frame switching
might occur in other bilingual combinations.Rather,comparing known personality
differences for each language/culture would give an indication of the differences
bilingual individuals would exhibit.
    I think it would be a mistake to over-emphasize this phenomenon
over other criteria affecting the selection of appropriate media and
language to reach a target market.Clearly,the major considerations of
demographics(人口统计资料),perception    of the medium,language
fluency,etc.should remain major factors.Besides,the language-driven
cultural frame switching may not make much difference to many
products or services.If the product does attract one cultural personality
more,though,it may  make sense to exploit that differences of the
other decision criteria are more or less equivalent.
    The researchers point out that the differences aren’t great.Even if
slight,though,the differences are noticeable.
 Cultural Frame Switching:Different Language,Different Personality
Concept of  Cultural frame switching refers to the phenomenon of 
cultural frame shifting from one cultural mindset to another when people 
switching   are 71.________exposed  to their new cultural environment.
            Cultural frame switching is a factor marketers now take 
Applications of into 72.____account/consideration_______________ to reach target customers.
cultural frame Personality shift proves to be 73._______existent for Spanish/
                                             necessary/essential
switching   English bilinguals,which makes it not 74._______________
            to do language-specific testing of bilingual subjects.

                    解析71  解析72   解析73   解析74  语篇解读     答案
            Looking for the known personality differences between 
Applications of 
            each language/culture would give marketers a better 
cultural frame 
            75._______understanding/idea__________ of how bilingual individuals would 
switching
            76._______behave in two different cultures.

Facts about 
            It’s wrong to put too much 77.____stress/emphasis___________ on the 
cultural frame 
            functions of cultural frame switching.
switching


                                   解析75   解析76  解析77   答案
            Compared  with other criteria,the language-driven
            cultural frame switching simply plays a (n) 78._______minor/___
 Facts about 
            ____________unimportant role in marketing success.
cultural frame 
            Providing that a product 79._____appeals____ to a certain
  switching
            cultural personality more,the difference is worth
            employing.

            The effect different languages have on personality is
 Conclusion
            80.________slight  but noticeable.


                                   解析78   解析79  解析80   答案
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