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2018-2019 高考英语短文改错专项练习之冠词

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                        高三短文改错专项练习之冠词

                                  教学内容


                        


                                        冠词

重点诠释

    由于汉语中没有冠词的概念,因此英语中冠词的使用成为中学生容易出错的地方,高考短
文改错也正是针对考生在思维上的误区设置错误。短文改错对冠词的考查集中在以下几方面:

    1.该使用冠词的地方没有使用冠词或不需要使用冠词的地方却使用了冠词;

    2.冠词的误用,如:该使用定冠词的地方使用了不定冠词,而应该使用不定冠词的地方却
使用了定冠词。

    考查重点具体来说有:

    重点一:冠词漏用

    冠词漏用的场合很多,主要见于以下情况:

    1. 单数可数名词前漏用不定冠词

  【典例   1】I was a high school student then, from low-income family.

    解析:low-income   前加  a。这里是单数可数名词前漏用了不定冠词。a low-income family                 表
示一个低收入家庭。不定冠词             a(n)的基本用法有: 

    ⑴泛指一类人和物,相当于            any。如:
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A horse is a useful animal. 

马是有用的动物。

A steel worker makes steel. 

钢铁工人炼钢。

⑵表示    one 或 every,表示“一”“每”。如:

We have three meals a day.  

我们一天吃三顿饭。

I’ll return in a day or two.  

我一两天后回来。

⑶指某人或某物,但不具体说明是何人、何物。如:

A Mr. Wang is waiting for you outside.  

有位姓王的先生在外边等你。

⑷用在   quite, rather, many, half, what, such 等词后。如:

Many a boy is swimming.

许多男孩在游泳。

The village is half an hour’s walk from here. 

村庄距离这里步行有半小时的路程。

⑸用在    so(as/too/how etc.) +形容词之后。如:

How interesting a film it is!   

电影真有趣! 
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    He is not so /as good a driver as you. 

    他不是一位和你一样优秀的司机。

    ⑹用  a/an + 抽象名词,表示“一件……的事”、“一个……的人”。如:   

    As a writer she is a success. 

    作为作家,她是成功的。

    ⑺组成固定词组或成语。如:

    a little, a few, a lot, a type of, a pile, a great many, many a, as a rule, in a hurry, in a minute, in a 
word, in a short while, after a while, have a cold, have a try, keep an eye on, all of a sudden 等。

    2. 抽象名词具体化时,前边没有用不定冠词


    3. 固定搭配中漏用冠词


    注意以下易混短语的区别:

      at table          在进餐               in front of       在(外部)前面

      at the table      在桌子旁              in the front of   在(内部)前面

      in hospital       在住院               out of question   毫无疑问

      in the hospital   在医院里              out of the question 不可能

      in place of       代替                a number of       许多

      in the place of   在……的地方            the number of     ……的数目

      go to prison      坐牢                for a moment      一会儿

      go to the prison  到监狱去              for the moment    目前,暂时
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      in future         从今以后,将来           in charge of      负责

      in the future     未来                in the charge of  由……负责 

      on earth          究竟                by day            在白天

      on the earth      在地球上,在世上          by the day        按日计算

      go to church      去做礼拜              in possession of  拥有

      go to the church  到教堂去              in the possession of 为……所有

    重点二:多余使用冠词

    多余使用冠词的场合也很多,常见情况有:

    1.物质名词或抽象名词表示泛指时前边省略冠词

  【典例   4】Although  we have been members for a short period of time, we have made a great 
progress.

    解析:去掉第二       a。本题考查不可数名词不与不定冠词连用的用法。progress                     作“进步”讲是
不可数名词,前边不能用不定冠词。make progress               取得进步。

    2.三餐饭、球类运动、季节、月份、日期、星期、节日、学科名词前常省略冠词

  【典例   5】He promised to come and see us after the supper.

    解析:去掉     the。本题考查三餐饭类名词前常省略冠词的用法。after                      supper 晚饭后。注意
这类名词前有形容词修饰时,指具体某顿饭,转化为可数名词,如:We                               had a delicious dinner 
yesterday.

    3.依据一些固定搭配或者句子逻辑不该用冠词

  【典例   6】It has been too dry this year and there are a few apples on the tree.

    解析:去掉     a。本题考查句子内在逻辑关系。既然天气干燥,果树结果实就比较少,因此
逻辑上表示否定意义,应用            few。不用冠词的场合概括如下:
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⑴泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词。如:

They are all middle school teachers. 

他们都是中学教师。

⑵抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词。如:

Failure is the mother of success. 

失败乃成功之母。

⑶物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词。如:

Man cannot live without water. 

人类离不开水。 

⑷在季节、月份、节日、            假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词。如:

We go to school from Monday to Friday.  

我们星期一到星期五上学。

⑸在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词。如:

The guards took the American to General Lee. 

卫兵们把那位美国人带到李将军面前。

⑹在三餐饭、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词。如:

have breakfast 吃早饭,play chess 下棋

⑺当  by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词。如:

by bus 乘汽车,by train 乘火车

重点三:冠词误用
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    冠词误用的情况比较复杂,但常见于以下几种情况:

    1.根据特定语境逻辑需要表示特指而不是泛指或者正好相反


    定冠词   the 的基本用法如下: 

   定冠词    the 与指示代词     this,that 同源,有“那(这)个”的意思,但意义较弱,可以和一个
名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。

    ⑴表示特定的或上文已提到的人或物。如:

    How did you like the report?

    你认为这个报告怎么样?

    ⑵表示世界上独一无二的东西。如:

    The sun is the centre of the world.

    太阳是世界的中心。

    ⑶表示江河、山川群岛、海峡海湾及国家、党派的名称是由几个普通名词构成的专有名词。
如:

    the Dead Sea 死海, the People’s Republic of China 中华人们共和国 

    the People's Park 人民公园, the Golden Gate Bridge 金门大桥

    ⑷定冠词+姓氏复数,表示夫妇或一家人。如:

       The Whites are spending their holiday in England.

    怀特夫妇正在英国度假。

    ⑸演奏的乐器名称前加定冠词。如:

    play the piano 弹钢琴, play the flute 吹笛
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    ⑹某些形容词前加         the 表示一类人或物,谓语动词用复数。如:

       The wounded are taken good care of in the hospital.

    伤员们在医院得到很好的照顾。

    ⑺用在单数名词前,表示一类人或一类物。如:

    The computer is a useful invention.

    电脑是有用的发明。

    ⑻用在序数词前、形容词最高级前或表示“两者之间较……者”时。如:

       He is always the first person to come.

    他总是第一个来。

    There are two buildings, the larger of which stands nearly a hundred feet high.

    有两栋建筑,其中较大的几乎有              100 英尺高。

    ⑼表示“几十世纪几十年代”之前。如:

    in the 1870s 十九世纪七十年代  

    ⑽表示发明物的名词词前。如:

    Alexander Graham Bell invented the phone in 1876.

    亚历山大·格来姆·贝尔        1876 年发明了电话。

    ⑾用在方位名词前或某些表示时间的词组中。如:

    on the left, in the west of in the day, in the morning, the day after tomorrow

    ⑿用在一些习惯用语中。如:

    in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before 
yesterday, the next morning, in the sky, in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, in the middle of, in the 
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end, on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre…

    2.混淆了与冠词相关的短语

    【典例   8】He failed but wanted to try the second time.

    解析:the→a。本题考查易混短语的用法。the                 second  time 表示“第二次”,若表示重复,
“又一次”,应用      a second time。

    【典例   9】After watching TV, she played the violin for an hour.

    解析:violin  前加  the。乐器类名词前总要带定冠词             the,而球类运动名词前总省略定冠词
the。

    3.因注意不到语境逻辑或者特殊句型的用法而造成的错误

    【典例   10】I’m afraid I will have a little time to come and see you.

    解析:去掉     a。本题考查根据句子逻辑关系判断能力。I’m                   afraid 表示自己委婉的担心,换
句话说,后边表示否定意义,因此应去掉                  a。

【好题调研】

1. Besides, it’s waste of time and energy for my teacher to visit my home. 

2. A new science museum was open to public in my city last month.

3. What a great fun it is to have a swim in the summer vacation!

4. Ten minutes later, the firemen came and put out fire.

5. I used to be a happy little girl but now I’m shy and say a few words.

6. I had not studied at all at the weekend as I had thought it would be a easy test.

7. Since he has no sense of humor, I’m sure he didn’t catch humor in your remarks.

8. A stranger stopped in the front of me and asked me the way to a new restaurant.
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9. I began to feel worried because I didn’t have either a raincoat or umbrella about me.


答案与解析:

1. waste 前加 a。本题考查名词固定搭配。a waste of          浪费(时间、金钱)。

2. public 前加 the。本题考查含名词的固定短语。the public           公众;人民。

3. 去掉  a。fun 表示“有趣的人或事”但是不可数名词。great fun              很有趣的人或事。

4. fire 前加 the。本题考查名词表示特指的用法。这里特指消防队员要扑灭的大火。

5. 去掉第二个     a。本题考查根据句子逻辑进行判断的能力。根据                     used to 表示前后对比的用法得
  知,后半句表示自己现在沉默寡言,否定意义。

6. a→an。本题考查可数名词前冠词的准确运用。由于中心名词                          test 是单数形式,而      easy 以元
  音开头,因此前边应加上           an 而不是   a。由于不细心造成功亏一篑,可惜呀!

7. 第二个   humour 前加  the。本题考查同一名词不同语境的灵活用法。a sense of humor                 幽默感。
  第二空特指谈话中的幽默点。

8. 去掉第一个     the。本题考查易混介词短语的用法。in               the front of 表示内部的前边,而       in the 
  front of 表示“在……前边”(相对位置),显然这里应用后者。

9. umbrella 前加 an。本题考查可数名词前冠词的准确运用。umbrella                  是可数名词,又以元音开
  头,前边应用不定冠词          an。

【强化闯关】

1. I was in such hurry that I burnt my hand when I was cooking breakfast.

2. Yes, why not give me a call or come for the get-together this weekend?

3. These cleaning women are paid by hour.

4. Helen was pleased with the offer and decided to start work next day.
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5. Of all the students I made fewest mistakes in the exam.

6. Do you know who is in the charge of the children here?

7. He felt that somebody patted him on his shoulder.

8. The most important thing about cotton in history is a part that it played in the Industrial Revolution.

9. Each player must obey captain, who is the leader of the team.

10. As she didn’t want to spend much money, she chose cheaper of the two.

11. Please tell a good news to the rest of the family as soon as possible.

12. When sun was setting, he still didn't catch any fish.

13. Here is introduction to the Beech School of English. 

14. In fact many people enjoy sports by watching the others play.

15. The Wilsons live in an A-shaped house near the coast. It is the 17th century cottage.

答案与解析:

1. hurry 前加 a。本题考查固定搭配准确运用能力。in a hurry             是固定词组,意为“匆忙地”。

2. the→a。本题考查可数名词前冠词的确定。由于是第一次出现“聚会”这个概念,应理解为泛
  指,因此前边应用        a。

3. hour 前加 the。计量单位词前要用         the。by the hour 表示按小时(付钱等)。

4. next 前加 the。本题考查冠词的灵活用法。next            day 泛指“明天;第二天”,若表示具体一天之
  后“第二天”应用      the next day。

5. fewest 前加 the。本题考查形容词最高级前使用定冠词的用法。the fewest mistakes                错误最少。

6. 去掉第一个     the。本题考查易混短语的用法。in charge of           表示“负责;主管”,而         in the charge 
  of 表示“由……负责”,意思相反。根据本句意思,应用前者。

7. his→the。本题考查特定句型中冠词的使用。“hit,                pat, strike, catch, seize, take…+ sb. 
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  on/in/by+the+身体部位名词”是常用句型,应牢记。

8. a→the。本题考查名词表示特指的用法。这里特指棉花在工业革命中所起的作用,是特指,
  应用  the。

9. captain 前加 the。本题考查名词表示特指的用法。后边的定语从句起限制作用,应用定冠词
  the 修饰。

10. cheaper 前加 the。本题考查冠词与比较级连用的用法。表示“两者之间更……”应用“the                           +比
  较级+of”句型。

11. a→the。本题考查结合语境名词表示特指的用法。显然这里特指双方都知道的消息,因此应
  用定冠词    the。

12. sun 前加 the。本题考查结合定冠词         the 基本用法。日月星辰、江河湖海等名词前常用定冠词
  the。 

13. introduction 前加 an。本题考查单数可数名词前冠词的用法。an introduction to            对……的介绍。


14.   去掉   the。本题考查与冠词相关的易混代词的用法。the                     others 表示“剩余的全部”,而
  others 表示“其他人;别人”。本句意为:事实上许多人所谓喜欢体育是看着别人玩的。

15.   第三个   the→a。一般来说,序数词前应用定冠词                the,但这里中心词是        cottage,侧重表示
  “一个十七世纪风格的茅屋”,泛指概念。

小结:


第二节(共    5 小题;每小题    2 分,满分   10 分)

   根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。(注:选                                 E 
涂 AB ; 选  F 涂 AC; 选 G 涂 AD)
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                          Some Ways to Deal With Hardship and Pain in Life

   Regardless of the difficulties you may face, it’s getting back up and moving forward that counts the most when 
you need to deal with hardship.     36     

   Write or talk about how you feel

   Keeping my feelings to myself used to make me feel lonely, but when I found someone who actually cared about 
me, it became natural to share how I felt with him and that contributed to my ability to overcome troublesome 
situations.     37     Although talking to strangers about your issues may seem crazy, it actually isn’t.

        38    

   It is said that running away from your problems will never help, and though that’s partially true, it doesn’t mean 
that you need to make yourself go so deeply into a situation that you run out of air to breathe and lose the ability to 
weigh the pros and cons of your choices. That happens more than we like to admit, which is why it’s important to 
separate yourself from a situation long enough to think clearly without having people hanging over your shoulders.

   Remind yourself that you’re not alone

   Regardless of who or what you depend on,you need to remind yourself that you are not alone; you have people 
who do care.    39     Sometimes it’s strangers who may share the same feelings as you do. Think about it—
you may not know any of these readers personally but they could be in the exact same situation as you, so in fact, no 
one is truly alone.

   Accept the results and get back up again

       40    Whether the results of your choices proved to be helpful or not, it’s time for you to accept them and 
get back up. This time you have a new experience to add to your book of life so the next time something tries to 
knock you down, it won’t be easy because you will be strong and determined to push forward. Life will go on, time 
will never stand still, and it rests upon you to make the right decision of moving forward.

 A.Separate yourself from the situation.

 B.Tell yourself to accept the hardship.

 C.Finally, it’s time to accept what has happened.

 D.All in all, remember that life is short.

 E.Not only did I speak to him about how I felt, but I decided to blog about it.

 F.Here are some things I've tried just to help me believe in a brighter future and get over a tough situation.

 G.Even if it’s just one person, that’s enough to give you reason to remind yourself that you will never truly be 
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alone.

第三部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分                 45 分)

第一节    完形填空     (共  20 小题,每小题      1.5 分,共  30 分)

   阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的                   A、B、C、D     四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

   Lunch hour is crazy at SAME Cafe, the 40-seat restaurant my husband and I run in Denver.

   A woman in a(n)   41  suit stepped in. "Hi, Libby." she said. Wow, what a  42  ! The first time she came to 
the cafe two years ago, she had no money to pay.   43  many customers, she volunteered to wash dishes and  44   
. Look at her now: confident and hopeful. Wasn't this what we'd hoped for?

    In 2003, we'd   45  this crazy dream: start a restaurant with a donation box instead of a cash register. Right 
away we hit hurdles(阻碍). "There is no such thing as a  46   lunch," one potential landlord sniffed. I met 
brokers, bankers and suppliers, only to watch them   47  , shaking their heads. No bank would lend us the money 
to open a restaurant with no  48  . The only fund we could get was our individual retirement account.   49  we 
rented space from a landlord on Colfax Street. We put flyers(传单)around the neighborhood, asked friends to  50  
the word, and held our breath. 

    Word traveled fast,   51  stories in the papers and on TV. Soon we had more than 50 customers a day. A few 
ate without paying or  52  an hour of work. But most gave what they could,   53  it was just a dollar. Those with 
money gave, and then more. One of our customers left a   54  for 500 dollars. Another bought 1000 dollars in gift 
certificates.   55  another donated a truck so we could transport  56  from suppliers.

   People came here partly for what our cafe  57  —SAME: So All May Eat. We treat everyone with   58  . We 
hoped to develop a sense of community so that we might  59  one another. The woman in business suit was one of 
them. Our  60  to open the cafe was worth it.

41. A. dinner          B. evening         C. business         D. summer

42. A. change          B. beauty          C. fool             D. coincidence

43. A. With            B. Like            C. Besides          D. Towards

44. A. wait            B. sing            C. perform          D. sweep

45. A. lived           B. hatched         C. ignored          D. achieved

46. A. packed          B. delicious       C. free             D. delivered

47. A. crowd together  B. flood in        C. walk away        D. turn up

48. A. staff support   B. regular customers C. lunch boxes    D. cash register
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49. A. Unfortunately   B. Finally         C. Interestingly    D. Illegally

50. A. analyze         B. read            C. spread           D. approve

51. A. thanks to       B. apart from      C. ahead of         D. according to

52. A. regretting      B. gaining         C. donating         D. balancing

53. A. only when       B. and forever     C. so that          D. even if

54. A. reward          B. check           C. bill             D. list

55. A. Still           B. Instead         C. Otherwise        D. Thus

56. A. lunch           B. customers       C. dishes           D. produce

57. A. stood for       B. applied for     C. benefited from   D. depended on

58. A. patience        B. generosity      C. confidence       D. dignity

59. A. protect         B. trust           C. help             D. treasure

60. A. dream           B. struggle        C. management       D. style
                          第II卷(非选择题  共                  50  分)

第三部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分                 45 分)

第二节    语法填空     (共 10 小题;每小题      1.5 分, 满分  15 分)

   阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于                     3 个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。

Travel agency: Good morning. Can I help you? 

Daisy: I’m sorry to say that I am   61  (disappoint) about my trip to Norwich. It is the  62    (bad) experience of 
   my life! 

Travel agency: What is the problem? 

Daisy: Well, first of all, I found my wallet   63   (go) when I got on the bus. I turned   64   the guides for help, 
   but they were impatient. I hate to say this,  65   they behaved impolitely towards us customers. Could you do 
   something about this? 

Travel agency: Hmm, I apologize. Did you find   66   wallet? 

Daisy: No. And that’s not all. The bus was one hour late. Worse   67  , it picked up passengers   68   the way to 
   our destination. You really have to do something about it. 
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Travel agency: I’m so sorry, but sometimes the bus can   69    (delay) by some problems. We can’t always be sure 
   that the bus will set out on time. 

Daisy: Why didn’t you tell me the truth?  70   I booked the ticket, you promised to drive non-stop from Aye to 
   Norwich. 

Travel agency: I am terribly sorry to hear that. I will look into it immediately and give you a satisfactory reply. 

第四部分:写作(共两节,满分             35 分)

第—节    短文改错(共      10 小题;每小题      1 分,满分    10 分)

   假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有                                      10 处语言错
   误,每句中最多有两处。错误涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

    增加:在缺词处加一个漏词符号(/\),并在其下面写出该加的词。

    删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

    修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

   注意:1、每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

         2、只允许修改      10 处,多者(从第       11 处起)不计分

   Recently our class have had a heat discussion on whether the score of English should be reduced by 100. 

Opinions concerned this hot topic vary from person to person.

   Some  students in favor of it. They thought reducing the score may be a good chance for our students, we are 

supposed to attach much important to Chinese. It is no need for every student to learn English so hard.

   However, others disagree with it. They think it’s English that play an important role in international 

communication. In their opinion, reduce the English score isn’t a wise choice. 

   Personally, I agree with the latter.

第二节 书面表达 (满分         25 分)

   假如你是李华,在丹麦访学的一周里,住在                   Anne 家里,现在即将回国。请你给她写一封感谢信,要点
如下:

   1. 简述你的丹麦之行;         2. 感谢她为你所做的一切;           3. 向她发出邀请。

   参考词汇:Denmark      丹麦
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   注意:1.    适当增加情节,以使行文连贯;

         2. 词数  100 字左右。

Dear Anne,   

______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________
____

   All the best wishes.

                                                                    Yours

                                                                  Li Hua

                                         英语答案

阅读:21DBCA      25CDBA   29BDC   32CABD   36FEAGC

完形:41CABDB      46CCDBC   51ACDBA    56DADCB

语法填空:61. disappointed   62. worst  63. gone  64. to  65. but66. the/his  67. still 68. on 69. be delayed    
70. Before/When

改错: 1. heated   2. to   3. concerning   4. are in favor of      5. think 6. us students 7. importance   8. 
There   9.plays  10. reducing 
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