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2018-2019学年人教版英语 必修一 Unit 1 学案(教师版)

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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Ⅰ.核心必记单词
1.upset adj.心烦意乱的;不安的;不适的;vt.使不安;使心烦
2.ignore vt.不理睬;忽视
3.calm adj.平静的;镇静的;沉着的;vt.& vi.(使)平静;(使)镇定
4.concern vt.(使)担忧;涉及;关系到;n.担心;关注;(利害)关系→concerned                 adj.担心的;
忧虑的

5.settle vi.定居;安家;停留;vt.使定居;解决;安排→settlement n.协议;解决
6.suffer vt.& vi.遭受;忍受;经历→suffering n.折磨;苦难
7.recover vt.& vi.痊愈;恢复;重新获得→recovery n.康复;痊愈;复得
8.disagree vi.不同意→disagreement n.不同意

Ⅱ.阅读识记单词
9.loose adj.松的;松开的
10.series n.连续;系列

11.outdoors adv.在户外;在野外
12.entire adj.整个的;完全的;全部的
13.power n.能力;力量;权力→powerful adj.强大的;强有力的
14.teenager n.十几岁的青少年

15.exactly adv.确实如此;正是;确切地
16.grateful adj.感激的;表示谢意的

17.dislike n.& vt.不喜欢;厌恶
18.tip n.提示;技巧;尖;尖端;小费;vt.倾斜;翻倒
19.swap vt.交换
20.item n.项目;条款
语境活用     [用所给词的正确形式填空]
1.The fast economic development before 2016 was probably the most powerful(power) engine 
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driving the constant growth in the box-office(电影票房) income.
2.Ignoring(ignore) the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst 
mistakes you make.(2015·安徽)

3.I placed the chick in the nest,and it quickly calmed(calm) down.(2017·全国Ⅰ)
4.What makes me concerned(concern) is my final exam which will be held in two weeks.
5.The most pleasant thing of the rainy season is that one can be entirely(entire) free from dust.
6.Sometimes it may not be so easy to know exactly(exact) what is right or wrong.
7.We had a disagreement(disagree) about/over the fee for the work.
8.Although I worked there for over a year,I never really felt settled(settle).
9.At last the economy is showing signs of recovery(recover).
10.A teenager(teen) is someone who is between thirteen and nineteen years old.


1.“感谢”荟萃
(1)grateful adj.感激的
(2)thankful adj.感谢的
(3)gratitude n.感激
(4)appreciate v.感激
(5)appreciation n.感激

2.“...+-y”→名词
(1)recover→recovery 康复
(2)discover→discovery 发现
(3)modest→modesty 谦虚
(4)honest→honesty 诚实
(5)difficult→difficulty 困难
3.“天气”单词集锦
(1)thunder n.雷;vi.打雷
(2)lightning n.闪电
(3)haze n.雾霾
(4)rainstorm n.暴风雨

4.“动词+-ing”→名词
(1)suffer→suffering 苦难
(2)build→building 建筑(物)
(3)cross→crossing 十字路口
(4)hear→hearing 听力
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(5)feel→feeling 感觉


1.add up 合计
2.calm (...) down(使)平静下来;(使)镇定下来
3.be concerned about 关心;挂念
4.go through 经历;经受
5.set down 放下;记下;登记
6.on purpose 故意
7.in order to 为了……
8.face to face 面对面地
9.be/get tired of 对……厌烦
10.get along with 与……相处;进展
11.fall in love 相爱;爱上
12.join in 参加;加入
语境活用     [用上述黑体短语的正确形式填空]
1.He stared at them without joining in the conversation.
2.I am tired of watching television;let’s go for a walk.
3.He must work very hard in order to support his large family.
4.You made it sound as if I had done it on purpose!
5.You must remember:Almost  everyone had gone through many difficulties before they 
succeeded.
6.Mr Johnson lit a cigarette to calm himself down.


1.“动词+through”小结
(1)go through 通过;用完;检查;经历,经受
(2)see through 帮助渡过难关;看穿
(3)look through 快速查看;浏览
(4)get through 完成;用完;打通(电话)

2.“n.+prep.+n.”类短语聚焦
(1)face to face 面对面
(2)shoulder to shoulder 肩并肩
(3)hand in hand 手拉手
(4)heart to heart 心连心
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(5)side by side 肩并肩

3.“写下,记下”短语小结
(1)set down 记下;放下
(2)write down 写下;记下
(3)put down 记下;放下
(4)note down 记下


1.状语从句的省略
While walking the dog,you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.
遛狗时,你不小心把狗松开了,它被车撞了。

2.before 引导时间状语从句
She and her family hid away for nearly twenty-five months before they were discovered.
她与家人躲藏了将近二十五个月之后才被发现。

3.It is/was...that...强调句型

I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so 
crazy about everything to do with nature.
我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂
热。

4.It/This/That is/was/will be the first/second...time that...这/那是第几次……

...it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face...
……这是我一年半以来第一次目睹夜晚……
句式仿写
1.科学家发现,当受到攻击时所有的植物都会散发出挥发性有机化合物。(2017·全国Ⅱ)
Scientists have found that all kinds of plants give out VOCs when being attacked.
2.如果你错过了这次机会,可能需要很多年你才能再有一次。
If you miss this chance,it may be years before you get another one.
3.正是当我回到公寓时,我第一次偶然遇见了我的新邻居们。(2017·天津)
It was when I got back to my apartment that I first came across my new neighbors.
4.这是我第一次和父母一起散步。
It is the first time that I have taken a walk with my parents.
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台


    
ignore vt.忽视;不理睬

拓展词:ignorant adj.无知的;愚昧的;无学识的
ignorance n.无知;愚昧
(1)be ignorant of 对……一无所知
(2)out of/through ignorance 出于无知

(1)He felt himself very ignorant(ignore).
他觉得自己很无知。
(2)Sometimes children do dangerous things out of/through ignorance.
有时孩子们出于无知而做一些危险的事。
[联想发散] 表示“出于……”的短语:
out of pity 出于同情                       out of curiosity 出于好奇
out of sympathy 出于同情                   out of shame 出于羞愧
out of envy 出于羡慕(忌妒)                   out of fear 出于恐惧
out of charity 出于仁慈                    out of revenge 出于报复
out of necessity 出于必要                  out of respect 出于尊敬

   
concern v.涉及;与……有关;(使)担忧
n.担心,忧虑;关心;(利害)关系

拓展词:concerned adj.担心的;感兴趣的(作前置定语);有关的;参与的(作后置定语)
concerning prep.关于
as far as ...be concerned 就……而言
be concerned about/for 对……担心/关心
be concerned with 与……有关
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

(1)As far as I’m concerned,I have changed a lot because of the lesson.
就我个人来说,这一课让我改变了许多。

(2)Concerning the toll free policy on the express way,what concerns us most is the traffic jams 
while some are concerned about the safety.(concern)
关于高速公路通行费免费政策,我们最担心的是交通堵塞,而有些人担心的是安全问题。
[句式升级] 把句(1)用其他方式表达

(3)In my opinion/view,I have changed a lot because of the lesson.(opinion/view)
(4)From my point of view,I have changed a lot because of the lesson.(point)
(5)In/With regard to me,I have changed a lot because of the lesson.(regard)

   power n.能力;力量;权力;动力
拓展词:powerful adj.强有力的;有影响力的;健壮的
come to power 掌权;上台

in one’s power 在某人的掌控中

do everything in one’s power=do/try one’s best 尽力而为;竭尽全力

(1)Ever since the party came to power last year,great changes of people’s life have taken place.
自从去年这个政党上台以来,人们的生活发生了很大变化。
(2)I will do everything in my power to help you.(power)
我会尽全力帮助你。
[熟词生义] 写出句子中黑体词的汉语意思

(3)The tractor is powered by a diesel(柴油机) engine.给(车辆或机器)提供动力

    suffer vt.& vi.受苦;遭受;经历
拓展词:suffering n.受苦,遭难;苦楚,苦难
sufferer n.受害者;患者
suffer from遭受……折磨;患……病
[易错点拨]
(1)suffer 和 suffer from 一般不用于被动语态。
(2)suffer 作及物动词,意思同      experience(体验;经历),其后可跟        pain,defeat,hardship 等
词作宾语;suffer from   中 from 表示原因,意为“因……而受苦”。

[选词填空]
(1)It is likely that you could suffer from(suffer/suffer from) bad health if you keep smoking.
(2)Drought continues to annoy many parts of China,with tens of thousands suffering(suffer/suffer 
from) water shortages and millions of others affected.
[句式升级]
(3)Because they had suffered such a heavy loss in the earthquake,they got help from all over the 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

world.(用现在分词短语作状语改写)
Having suffered such a heavy loss in the earthquake,they got help from all over the world.

    add up合计,加起来;合情理;说得通
add up to 总计为;合计达
add to 增加;增添
add...to...把……加到……

(1)If you add up those four figures,it adds up to over 500.
这四个数额加起来总额超过            500 美元。
(2)Perhaps you think you could easily add to your happiness with more money.
也许你认为有了更多的钱你就能轻松地提升你的幸福感。

[一句多译]
(3)三加四等于七。

①Three added to four makes/equals seven.(add to)

②Three and four add(s) up to seven.(add up to)

③If you add three to four,you will get seven.(add...to...)
[熟词生义] 写出下列句子中黑体词的汉语意思

(4)He added that the theater’s location(位置) was also a reason.(2017·全国Ⅲ)补充说

(5)These clues don’t really add up to very much.表示,意味着

    go through经历;经受;完成;通过;检查;用完
[写出下列句子中黑体词的汉语意思]
(1)I myself went through this searching process and found something that has changed my 
experience at college for the better.(2017·全国Ⅰ)经历

(2)Cars are not allowed to go through the city centre.通过,穿过

(3)It didn’t take Albert very long to go through his money.用完

(4)She went through the company’s accounts,looking for evidence of fraud(欺诈).检查;审核

    set down放下;记下;让……下车;登记
set about doing开始;着手
set aside 留出;把……放置一旁;不理会;取消
set out 出发for;着手to do;安排
set off 出发for;引起;点燃
set up 建立;准备;安排
be set in 以……为背景
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

[选择上述短语的正确形式填空]
(1)The movie is set in a small town where the only movie theater is preparing to close down.
                                                                  (2017·全国Ⅲ)

(2)In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme,one of whose purposes is to relieve 
worldwide starvation.(2017·江苏)

(3)Why don’t you set your ideas down on paper?

(4)The new government must set about finding solutions to the country’s economic problems.
(5)I try to set aside a few minutes each day to take exercise.
    get along/on with和……相处;进展
get across 讲清楚;使被领会to sb.
get over 克服
get down to doing sth.开始做某事
get through电话接通;用完;通过;度过

(1)How are you getting along/on with your French?
(2)It’s time that I got down to thinking(think) about my future.
(3)I think the problem can be got over without too much difficulty.
(4)He’s not very good at getting his ideas across.


(5)作为一个外向的女孩,我和同学相处得很好。(2015·陕西)

As an outgoing girl,I get along/on well with my classmates.


While walking the dog,you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.
遛狗时,你不小心把狗松开了,它被车撞了。

句型:状语从句的省略
(1)当状语从句的主语和主句的主语一致,且从句中含有                     be 动词时,可将从句的主语和
be 动词一起省略。
(2)当从句中含有“it+be      动词”时,可将       it 和 be 动词省略。

(1)If admitted(admit),I will do all I can to do the work well.
如果我能被录用,我一定会努力把工作做好的。
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(2)If possible,I want to avoid the rush hour traffic.
如果可能我想避开交通高峰时间。

[同义句改写]
(3)The director was fully convinced that this moving story,if adapted for television,would be a 
hit.(补全句中的省略成分)

→The director was fully convinced that this moving story,if it was adapted for television,would 
be a hit.


(4)参观艺术展时,我们讨论了伟大艺术家们的作品。(2016·天津)

While visiting the art exhibition,we discussed the great artists’ works.

I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so 
crazy about everything to do with nature.我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故,我
变得对一切与大自然有关的事物都无比狂热。

句型:It is/was...that...强调句型
(1)强调句型的基本结构为:It          is/was+被强调部分+that/who+其他部分(若被强调的是人,
可用  that 或 who;若被强调的部分是其他时,一律用               that)。另外要注意:本句型不能用于
强调原句的谓语动词。
(2)强调句的一般疑问句结构为:Is/Was it+被强调部分+that/who...?
(3)强调句的特殊疑问句结构为:特殊疑问词+is/was it+that...?
(4)对 not...until...句型中的时间状语(从句)进行强调时的结构为:It            is/was not until+被强调部
分+that+其他部分。

[用强调句型强调画线部分]

(1)I didn’t leave until he came.
It was not until he came that I left.
(2)I wonder what you were doing at this time yesterday.
I wonder what it was that you were doing at this time yesterday.
(3)He came to see us yesterday.
It was yesterday that he came to see us.


Ⅰ.单句语法填空
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

1.The astronauts will suffer from a carbon-dioxide headache when they exercise in one place for a 
long time.
2.Because sleepiness is such a problem for teenagers(teenager),some school districts have 
decided to start high school classes later than they used to.(2017·浙江)

3.Once,while working(work) overnight at a store,he let a homeless man sleep in his truck.
                                                                  (2017·全国Ⅱ)
4.It was 80 years before Christopher Columbus crossed the Atlantic that Zheng He had sailed to 
East Africa.
5.It was the first time that I had left(leave) my parents.
6.Dave went through his pockets looking for the keys.
7.—How did you pass the challenging test?
—It was a long time before I found a series of suitable methods.
8.Concerned(concern) about the student,the teacher called his parents to find out why he was so 
often absent from class.
9.A fly kept upsetting the boy.He was so upset that he upset the cup on the desk.(upset)
10.We’ve had a few disagreements(disagree),but we’re still good friends.

Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题仅有         1 处错误)
                                                         what
1.It’s not doing the things we like,but liking the things we have to do that  makes life happy.
                       fallen
2.The two young people have been  in love with each other for a year.
                              added
3.It was raining cats and dogs,thus adding to their difficulty in transporting the supplies to the 
earthquake-stricken areas.
4.I was very grateful to Anna for giving me the opportunity to join in the club.
                       will
5.Jack asked Jane when she would leave for London yesterday.
Ⅲ.教材与语法填空
    A best friend is someone you can tell everything 1.to,even your most 2.personal(person) 
feelings and thoughts.Anne Frank treated her diary 3.as her best friend.The German Nazis were in 
search of Anne and her family.The family had to hide away from the chase.They didn’t dare to go 
out even in the evenings.They had to stay 4.indoors(indoor) day and night.Not 5.being(be) able to 
go out for such a long time,Anne missed the beauty of nature so much 6.that she 7.grew(grow) 
crazy about everything to do with 8.it.She stayed up until eleven thirty one evening on purpose just 
to see the moonlight.She said,“This is the first time that I 9.have seen (see) the moonlight since I 

came here.”
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    10.Unfortunately(fortunate),the family were discovered at last and taken away from the 
hiding place.
Ⅳ.教材与短文改错
Dear Miss Wang,

    I was having some trouble in my classmates at the moment.I’m getting along well a boy in 
my class.We often do homework together and you enjoy help each other.We have became really 
good friend.But other students have started gossiping.They say that this boy and I have fallen in 
love.This has made me angrily.Although I don’t want to end the friendship,but I hate others 
gossiping.How should I do?
                                                                       Yours,
                                                                          Lisa
答案

Dear Miss Wang,
     was                  in                                            w∧ith
    I am  having some trouble with my classmates at the moment.I’m getting along well  a 
                                          you      help                 became
boy in my class.We often do homework together and we  enjoy helping each other.We have become 
          friend
really good friends.But other students have started gossiping.They say that this boy and I have 
                          angrily
fallen in love.This has made me angry .Although I don’t want to end the friendship,but I hate 
others gossiping.(或 Although I don’t want to end the friendship,but I hate others gossiping.)
How
What should I do?
                                                                       Yours,
                                                                          Lisa
Ⅴ.教材与微写作
写作素材    (关于友谊)
1.要想拥有朋友,你必须做一个诚实的人。
2.首先最好加入一些俱乐部并多参加活动以结识新朋友。
3.其次,一旦你有了朋友,要学会去关心他们。
4.在任何时候都不要忽视他们。
5.最后但同样重要的是,要和他们好好相处,并经常和他们面对面地交流。
提示:黑体部分用本单元词汇表达,并且请使用                    first,second,last but not least 等连接词。
连句成篇    (将以上句子连成一篇         50 词左右的英语短文)
    In order to have friends,you have got to be an honest person.First,you’d better join 
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some clubs and join in some activities to meet new people.Second,once you have friends,try to 

be concerned about them.Don’t ignore them at any time.Last but not least,you should get 
along well with them and often communicate with them face to face.


Ⅰ.阅读理解
                                      A
(2018·山东烟台期中)

    Special Kids Therapy(治疗)(SKT),is a charitable organization devoted to improving the 
quality of the individuals who struggle with physical,mental or emotional disabilities.
    Examples of what SKT can do:
    SKT offers the families of children with special needs practical help in buying special medical 
equipment,such as electrically-powered wheelchairs and other communication equipment that are 
not covered by insurance.
    SKT organizes summer camp activities for children with special needs,providing them with 
a chance to enjoy their summer and experience the traditional summer camp that fits their abilities.
    How you can help:
    SKT is an all-volunteer charitable organization,which is staffed by volunteers and depends 
on donations that make it possible for us to serve and help these special children.
    SKT  relies on people like you to help make good things happen for these special 
children.Your contribution is sincerely appreciated.Your donations help make children with special 
needs able to have alternative therapies such as animal-assisted therapy,art & music therapy,
massage therapy and water therapy.These are just a few of the many proven alternative therapies 
that bring joy and build self-respect of the children with special health care needs.Although these 
therapies are not covered by insurance,they enhance the mental,physical and emotional aspects 

of a child’s life.
    SKT knows that your time is valuable and we appreciate your volunteer interest.There are 
many chances to volunteer to work with the children and their families at our events or programs.
    Donations may be mailed to:
    Bosse Financial
    Attn:Special Kids Therapy,Inc
    PO Box 1024
    Findlay,Ohio 45839
    Please write checks to Special Kids Therapy
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    Phone:419-422-5607
    Email:care@specialkidstherapy.org
语篇解读 这篇文章介绍了非营利组织                SKT 旨在为残疾孩子们提供帮助,并且号召人们加
入 SKT,帮助残疾孩子。

1.From the passage we can know that SKT        .
A.earns very little by its alternative therapies
B.offers help to the children with disabilities
C.is partly supported by the local government
D.pays insurance for children with special needs
答案 B
解析 细节理解题。根据第一段内容可知                 SKT 是给残疾孩子提供帮助的非营利性机构,故
选 B。

2.What does the underlined word “enhance” mean in the text?
A.Accept.                         B.Damage.
C.Reduce.                         D.Improve.
答案 D
解析 词义猜测题。根据第七段中“These               are just a few of the many proven alternative 
therapies that bring joy and build self-respect of the children with special health care 
needs.Although these therapies are not covered by insurance,they enhance the mental,physical 

and emotional aspects of a child’s life.”可知画线句意为“尽管这些治疗方法没有被保险所
覆盖,但是它们改善了孩子们的身体、精神和情感生活。”故选                           D。
3.What can we infer from the text?
A.SKT is a non-profitable organization.
B.The disabled can ask practical help from SKT.
C.Donations are used to pay insurance for children.
D.Families of children with special needs are all poor.
答案 A
解析 推理判断题。根据第四段内容可推断出                   SKT 是一个非营利组织,故选           A。
4.The text is written to        .
A.encourage families to get donations
B.tell us how children can live a normal life
C.make an introduction of the special children
D.call on people to join SKT to help disabled children
答案 D
解析 写作意图题。根据文章最后一部分“SKT                   knows that your time is valuable and we 
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appreciate your volunteer interest.There are many chances to volunteer to work with the children 
and their families at our events or programs.”以及下面给出的联系方式可知这篇文章号召人们
加入  SKT,来帮助残疾孩子,故选            D。
                                      B
(2018·中央民族大学附属中学月考)

    It’s rare that the protagonist in a Chinese movie wins the audience’s hearts with an 
emotionally uplifting message,rather than by showing off his or her good looks.But Wolf Warrior 

Ⅱ is putting China in the global spotlight.It’s also the first film to taste success both in terms of 
box office earnings and promoting Chinese values.
    Kung fu artist Wu Jing both starred in and directed the action movie.Since its release on July 
27,it’s earned an unimaginable 4.5 billion yuan,setting a record for domestic movies at the 
box office.The success of the film has surpassed the anticipations of all,including the production 
team.
    The film focuses on a rescue operation in Africa,led by former special forces soldier Leng 
Feng—played by Wu.Leng helps Chinese workers and local Africans flee a war-torn and plague-
ravaged country.Wolf Warrior Ⅱ links art to reality,and reminds people of the massive 
evacuation of Chinese people from Libya when civil war broke out there in 2011,and from 
Yemen in 2015,as well as the challenges the Ebola virus created in West Africa from 2013 to 
2016.The film describes how the Chinese government aims to protect overseas Chinese 
citizens.Just as the message at the end of the film reads:“Citizens of the People’s Republic of 
China.When you encounter danger in a foreign land,do not give up! Please remember,at your 

back stands a strong motherland.”

    Thanks to China’s increasing participation in global affairs,now could be considered the 
right moment to introduce a modern Chinese hero.
    “Holding up a banner of peace,friendship and responsibility,Wolf Warrior Ⅱ should be 
seen as a brave effort to promote Chinese values around the world,” columnist Zhu Ping wrote 
in China Daily.
    “It’s time Chinese filmmakers produced films that tell good stories and carry the right 

spirit.Let us assume Wolf Warrior Ⅱ has started that trend.”
语篇解读 本文是一篇影评:国产影片的主角不是通过展现颜值,而是因为传递了正能量而
获得观众的喜爱,这点相当少见。但《战狼                  2》却令全球的焦点都汇聚到了中国身上。它同
时也是首部在票房收入以及弘扬中国价值观方面获得双赢的电影。

5.We can learn from the passage that         .
A.leading characters in Chinese movies are mostly popular for their appearances
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B.it is hard for a protagonist in Chinese movies to win the audience’s hearts

C.Wolf Warrior Ⅱ is the first Chinese movie to spread Chinese values
D.the production team is not surprised at the big box-office success
答案 A
解析 推理判断题。根据第一段第一句:国产影片的主角是通过传递正能量,而不是通过展
现颜值而获得观众的喜爱,这点相当少见。可以推断出中国影片通常是靠颜值而流行的。故
选 A。
6.The film is popular with the audience mostly because         .
A.Kung fu artist Wu Jing both starred in and directed it
B.it attempts to promote Chinese values around the world
C.it is backed up and funded by the Chinese government
D.it shows that China is playing an active role in global affairs
答案 B
解析 推理判断题。根据第一段最后一句可知,它同时也是首部在票房收入以及弘扬中国价
值观方面获得双赢的电影。可以判断出这部影片受欢迎主要是因为它向世界弘扬了中国价值
观。故选    B。
7.The underlined word in Para.3 can be replaced by         .
A.worry about                     B.hang out
C.fall into                       D.come across
答案 D
解析 词义猜测题。画线词所在句意为:当你在海外遭遇危险,不要放弃!请记住,在你身
后,有强大的祖国作你的坚实后盾!可知                 encounter 意为“遭遇”。worry      about 担心;hang 
out 闲逛;fall into 掉入;come across 遇见,碰到。故选       D。
                                      C
(2018·山东菏泽七县一中期中)

    As more people opt for the single life,adult friendships also grow more important.For people 
in relationships,having a reliable group is important,too—your mate will be much happier if 

you’re spreading your anxieties beyond his or her ears and you will also feel better.
    In a recent study,researchers made some fascinating findings about how “who we are” 
informs the friendships we hold.The study was based on the most popular personality construct in 
contemporary psychology,the Big 5 personality traits(特征):extraversion,or how much you 
love attention and interacting with people;neuroticism,or how easily worried you are by things; 
agreeableness,or how warm and kind you are; conscientiousness,or how careful you are about 

life’s many duties; and openness to experience,or how much you’re into discovering new 
things,whether they’re ideas,people,or places.
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    For their study,the research team recruited 434 students.They took a personality 
questionnaire in the lab,then rated how satisfied they were with their friends and their life 
overall,and then researchers asked them to recommend half a dozen friends to rate their 
personality.Gathering these ratings together,the researchers found that openness to experience 

didn’t have anything to do with friendship satisfaction,at least in this study.Neuroticism was 
linked to lower satisfaction (probably because emotionally unstable people may be dramatic or hard 
to please,at least in my personal experience).But having high scores in the three remaining sunny 
traits—conscientiousness,extra version,and agreeableness—predicted higher friendship 
satisfaction.However,it’s a pretty intuitive(直觉的) result,since it’s easy to be friends with 

someone who’s  always on time,always saying that you’re right,and always up to hang 

out.But if you don’t exactly identify with all that,fear not:Your personality is so much more 
than your traits.
语篇解读 这篇文章通过调查研究讨论了性格和友谊之间的关系。
8.What does the author think of the friendship?
A.It is helpful to dating and work.
B.It can relieve your negative emotions.
C.It has nothing to do with personality.
D.It is based on the 5 popular personality traits.
答案 B
解析 细节理解题。由第一段中的“your mate will be much happier if you’re spreading your 

anxieties beyond his or her ears and you will also feel better”可知作者认为友谊可以减轻你的
负面情绪。选      B。
9.What did the recent study find?
A.The biggest 5 personality traits.
B.The methods of informing the friendships.
C.The ways to form the most popular personality.
D.The relationship between personality and friendships.
答案 D
解析 细节理解题。由第二段中的“In                a recent study,researchers made some fascinating 

findings about how ‘who we are’ informs the friendships we hold.”可知最近这次调查是为了
发现性格和友谊之间的关系。选             D。

10.What does the underlined word “neuroticism” in Paragraph 2 mean?
A.Determination.                  B.Nervousness.
C.Hesitation.                     D.Optimism.
答案 B
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解析 词义猜测题。根据画线词后面的“or                 how easily worried you are by things”可推断出

“neuroticism”的意思是“神经过敏”。选            B。
11.What opinion does the author hold?
A.It’s hard to please emotionally unstable people.
B.A punctual person can surely make more friends.
C.Friends are more important than families for single persons.
D.The five traits are equally demanded in getting higher friendship satisfaction.
答案 A
解析 细节理解题。根据最后一段中的“probably because emotionally unstable people may be 
dramatic or hard to please,at least in my personal experience”可知作者认为很难让情感不稳定
的人高兴。选      A。

Ⅱ.七选五
(2018·安徽六安第一中学月考)

    One of the two major types of smog—consisting of smoke fog,sulfur dioxide(二氧化硫),
sulfuric acid,ash,and soot(煤烟)—is called London smog.Indeed,the word smog is thought to 

have originated in England in 1905 as a short form of the words “smoke” and “fog”.
    Probably the worst case of smog in history started in London on Thursday,4 December,1952.  
12    A  temperature inversion(逆温) placed a blanket of warm air over the cold air.With 
nightfall,a thick fog and below-freezing temperatures caused the people of London to put coal 
into their small stoves.Millions of these fires burned throughout the night,pouring sulfur dioxide 
and smoke into the air.The next day,Friday,the people continued to burn coal when the 
temperature remained below freezing.  13  
    Saturday was a day of darkness.For twenty miles around London,no light came through the 
smog.The air was cold and still.  14   On Monday,8 December,more than one hundred people 
died of heart attacks while trying desperately to breathe.  15  
    By the time a light wind cleared the air on Tuesday,9 December,more than 4,000 deaths had 
been caused by the smog.This is more people than were ever killed in any single hurricane,mine 
disaster,shipwreck,or airplane crash.  16   Air pollution events may not seem as serious and 
shocking as other disasters,but they can be just as deadly.

A.Where does “smog” come from?
B.Soot and ash can be removed in a scientific way.
C.And the coal fires continued to burn throughout the weekend.
D.A large cold air mass moved into the valley of the Thames River.
E.The factories added their smoke and chemical gas to the atmosphere.
F.This is more people than were killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.
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G.The city’s hospitals were overflowing with patients with breathing-related diseases.
语篇解读 本文介绍了1952年英国伦敦烟雾事件,及其造成的巨大人员伤亡。
12.答案 D
解析 根据空处下句:逆温层把暖空气覆盖在冷空气上。可知:一大片寒冷的气团进入了泰
晤士河的山谷。故选         D。

13.答案 E
解析 根据上文:当气温保持在冰点以下时,人们继续燃煤。所以与上文相匹配的内容应该
是:E  项“The factories added their smoke and chemical gas to the atmosphere.”故选 E。

14.答案 C
解析 根据上文:空气又冷又静。可知:所以,整个周末煤火一直在燃烧。故选                                 C。

15.答案 G
解析 根据上文:超过一百人当拼命呼吸的时候死于心脏病发作。可知这座城市的医院里满
是呼吸病人。故选        G。

16.答案 F
解析 根据前文:截止到           12 月 9 日,已有   4  000 多人死于雾霾。这比任何一次飓风、煤矿
灾难、船舶失事或飞机坠毁死的人都要多。与之相匹配的应该是:F                            项“This is more people 

than were killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.”此处关键词是:This is more people than 
were killed。
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