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最新高三英语高考英语语法课件:非谓语动词的比较和运用

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       非谓语动词的运用与比较

              不定式
   非谓语动词      动名词
               分词

一、 非谓语动词的句法功能
              在句中成分

        主  宾   表    宾   定    状
                    补
不定式
        √  √   √   √     √  √
 分词
        X   X   √  √     √  √
动名词
        √  √    √   X    √   X
二. 句法功能的区别:
 1 主语  动名词
       不定式
 It’s dangerous to play/playing with fire.

In many countries, shaking one’s head means 
“no” and nodding means “yes”.
To write a science fiction is his wish.
It is no good arguing_______(argue) with him about that.

 在含有no, -less,常用动名词短语作主语。
eg.
It is no use doing….; It is useless doing…
It is no good doing…; It is no help doing…
        不定式
2. 表语   动名词
        分词
  The story is moving.
  A way of saying “I am hungry” is patting the 
  stomach before a meal.
  My task this class is to teach you how to grasp 
  the grammar.
         动名词
 3. 宾语   不定式

 根据习惯搭配和语义区分 (详析精练 P. 91)
习惯接动名词作宾语的有:mind, finish, enjoy,
avoid, risk, consider, practise, suggest, advise, 
miss, appreciate, imagine, put off, keep (on),
give up, insist on, be used to, look forward to, 
stick to, devote one’s life to, be busy, be worth, 
can’t help, excuse, escape, admit(承认),delay, 
risk, object to(反对), pay attention to, etc.
习惯于后接动词不定式而不接动名词作宾语的
动词有:
want, wish, hope, expect, promise,
pretend, decide, manage, refuse, learn, agree,
plan, offer, long, demand, help, manage,
prepare, learn, determine, intend, etc. 
§ 动名词与不定式的不同含义:
§ be afraid to do  
§ 不敢、害怕、胆怯去做某事
§ be afraid of doing 
§ 担心、恐怕出现
§ We are never afraid to lay down our lives 
 for the right cause.
§ 为了正义的事业我们绝不怕牺牲自己的生
 命。
§ She was afraid of waking her husband up.
 2) forget to do sth.
忘记去做某事(未做)
forget doing sth.忘记做过了某事(已做)
 The light in the office is off. It was  she 
 who turned it off, but she herself forgot         
  _______( turn ) it off.
 The light in the office is still on. She forgot 
  ______(turn )it off.
3)remember to do sth.
记着去做某事(未做)
remember doing sth.记着做了某事(已做)
Do you remember ______(meet) me at a party
last year?
You must remember ______( leave) tomorrow.
4) stop to do sth.
    stop doing sth.
5) regret to do sth. 
遗憾地说/告诉…= be sorry to say / to tell…
 regret doing sth. 后悔做了…
I regret _______ ( tell) that you didn’t pass 
 the 
 exam again.
I regret _____( tell ) her the bad news.
6)try to do sth.
   try doing sth.
  We tried ______ ( persuade) him to go with us, 
  but he wouldn’t listen .
  Let’s try _____( do ) the work in some other 
  way.
7) mean to do sth.
    mean doing sth.
  If it means _____( delay ) more than a 
  week, I’ll not wait.
I mean _____( go ), and nothing can stop me.
8) go on to do sth.
go on doing sth.
9)can’t help doing sth.  
情不自禁,不禁 
can’t help (to) do sth. 
不能帮忙做…
10). permit / allow / advise  + doing sth. 
                      + sb. to do sth. 
11). start / begin / continue / like / love / hate                  
           + to do sth. 
           + doing sth.

但有些动名词在句中是主动形式,却有被动含
  义
The house requires / needs / wants repairing.
The book is worth reading. 

   
        动名词
 4. 定语  分词
        不定式
                =who is talking …
Do you know the man talking with a black there?
The carrying pole reminds me of our bitter days 
in the past. The pole for carrying things
There will be many people to help you. 
  Cf.
        to be built next year
 The lab being built now  is our splendid.
        built last year
 3. 现在分词和过去分词
   falling leaves exiting news
   fallen leaves  exited students
 -ing 令人…; -ed 表示所修饰词本身的特征
 a disappointing voice;   a disappointed voice
 注:1)现在分词作定语时,表示动作正在进行
 或与谓语动词的表示的动作几乎同时发生。
 如两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词
 作定语,而要用定语从句。
①The teacher criticized the student who had 
broken the window.
②Yesterday, mother told me an event which 
happened five years ago?
2). 不定式作定语
§ He thought out a plan _____ (punish) 
  Tom.
§ He is always the last _____ (come) to 
  office
§ Please give me a knife _____ (cut) with.
§ 作定语的不定式如是不及物动词,不定式
  后面须有相应的介词。
5.宾语补足语     不定式
            分词
使役动词:make, have, let, etc.
感觉动词: hear, listen to, see, watch, notice, 
observe, look at, find, feel, etc.
She is often listened ________( sing) the song.
It’s cold out side, we had the fire burning all night.
Mum had him wash the plates.
I saw him go upstairs. (已经上去了,全过程)
I saw him going upstairs (此刻的行为)
 注:不能用不定式作宾补的动词:
hope, suggest, agree, insist, plan, 
suppose, demand, think, announce, …
  make 后不能用doing作宾补
6. 状语    不定式
         分词
1.Every day he climbed to a high rock near his 
  cave to keep watch. 目的
2. Two years later, her father disappeared , never
 to return. 结果
3. I’m very glad to have this stamp again. 原因
4. It is too dark for us to see anything in the room.
  程度
5. He is old enough to look after himself. 程度
 不定式主要作目的,结果和程度状语
1). Once fleeing Germany, Einstein went first
 to France, then to Belgium…时间
2). Being a shy man, Einstein didn’t attend the 
 great celebration. 原因
3). The trainer appeared, followed by six little 
dog.  方式,伴随
4). Given more time, I can do it better. 条件

分词在句中主要作时间,原因,方式或伴随,
条件,让步,结果状语。
分词和不定式作结果状语
Tony’s father died, leaving him a lot of money.

He went home, only to find his money stolen.

现在分词和过去分词作状语
He lay on the ground, looking at the sky.

Once published, his work became famous for 

the absence of rhyme at the end of each line.
 Can you do the following?
§ The game ________interests  (interest) the boys. 
  The boys are ________________interested in  the game.
  The game is __________.interesting  
  I wonder why football _____A  boys. 
   A. has interested B. is interested in
   C. interesting  D. interested
§ _______Excited (excite) at the news, the boys rushed to 
  watch the game.
§ ________Filled  (Fill) with joy, I started off. 
 generally speaking, judging from, talking of,
 supposing, considering, compared with…
  § 注1:分词作状语时,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语
   一致,构成主动或被动的关系。
  § 注2: 表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连接词
   while或when引导。
  § 注3:有时,”with + 名词(或代词宾格)+ 分词”
   的结构表示伴随状况。
  § 注4:   当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,
   分词须有自己的主语,构成独立主格结构。
Moved by his words, he decided to study harder.
While watching TV, he heard someone shouting
 shout for help.
 With the work done, he went home.
 Weather permitting, we’ll go outing tomorrow.
三、 非谓语动词的各种形式:(以动词do为例)

           主动               被动


  不定式 一般   to do         to be done
    完成   to have done to have been done
    进行   to be doing
  分词
    一般    doing        being done
    完成    having done having been done
1.不定式的时态与语态:
  1)一般式:不定式表示的动作常与谓语的动作
  同时(或几乎同时)发生,或在它之后发生。
    I saw him go out.
  I plan to attend the meeting to be held tomorrow.
  2)进行式:不定式表示的动作正在进行。
    I’m very glad to be working with you. 
   3)完成式:不定式的动作发生在谓语动词之前
   I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.
  The article is said to have been read by many 
  people. 
 2.动名词的时态和语态
1)动名词的时态:一般式和完成式
  如doing的动作没明确表示出时间是与谓语同
  时发生或在谓语之前发生,用一般式。
  We are interested in _____ (play) chess.
  如doing的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作
  之前,通常用完成式。
  I’m sorry for not _____ (keep) my promise.
   但在某些词后,常用一般式,尽管其动作是在
  谓语所表示的动作之前发生。
   On hearing the bad news, she cried.
   I’ll never forget seeing that film for the first 
  time. 
2)动名词的语态
 doing   being done
   having done  having been done
 He was afraid of _____ (leave) at home.
   The house showed no sign of _____     
(damage).
 Xu Benyu insisted on being sent to the 
mountain area to serve the children there.
3  现在分词的时态及语态:
分词的动作如发生在谓语动词之后,doing用一
般式,如发生在谓语动词之前,用完成式
having done。 
But theme parks also try to make sure that 
visitors leave knowing more about their 
Havingtheme.  enjoyed the rides at the Headland, 
visitors can take a shuttle to the Lowland.
 4 非谓语动词的复合结构
 1). 不定式的复合结构: for/of sb. to do sth.
§ 如果要说明不定式表示的动作是谁做的,
  可以在不定式前加一个由for/of 引起的短
  语。
  It is easy for the students to read.
在一些表示对某人的  It will be a mistake“称赞 for ” us、 “to责备 help”等意义的形容词后, you.
如kind, good , nice, unwise , clever, silly , wrong , foolish ,
 stupid , careless , rude , impolite等词,
其后用“of + sb.+ to do sth. ”结构。
It’s unwise of them to take such an action. 
(=They’re unwise to take such an action .)
 It’s wrong of/ for him to speak bad  behind others.
2). 动名词的复合结构:

  名词所有格(Mary’s)/形容性物主代词(my)+动名

     逻辑主语是有生命的名词:作主语时,须
  用名词所有格或形容词性物主代词;作宾语
  时,也可用普通格或人称代词宾格。
     Tom’s (His) coming is what we have 
  expected.
     She didn’t mind Jack/ Jack’s (him/ his) 
  coming here.
 § 不定式一般不能作介词的宾语,只有在极少
   数介词如 :but, except等后才行,此时不定
   式可带to 或不带to.
 § He seldom comes except ____( look) at 
   my pictures.
 § We have no choice but _____( wait) 
   outside.
 § They could do nothing but _____(ask) for 
   help.
1).§ I不定式的主动式表示被动的几种情况: have a lot of things ______( do) today.
2).The shoes are too large for me_____( wear).
3).This question is difficult _______( answer).
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