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18-19人教版 必修一 Unit 5 Section Ⅲ Grammar——定语从句(Ⅱ)

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   Section Ⅲ Grammar——定语从句(Ⅱ)

                           [语  境  自  主  领  悟]
                     先观察原句                             后自主感悟

when,where,why,prep.+which/whom      引导的定语从
句
1.The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very 
                                                    1.关系副词
difficult period of my life.
2.It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom when 在定语从句
I went for advice.                                  中作时间状语(第
3.He was generous with his time,for which I was grateful. 1、5、6 句);关
4.The school where I studied for only two years was three 系副词 where 在
kilometres away.                                    定语从句中作地
         ,
5.However  this was a time when one had got to have a 点状语(第  4、7、
passbook to live in Johannesburg.
                                                    9 句)。
6.The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my 
                                                    2.“prep.+关系代
happiest.
                                                    词”的结构中,
7....until today we have reached a stage where we have 
almost no rights at all.                            which 用于指代物
8.The parts of town in which they had to live were decided (第 3、8、10 句)
by white people.                                    ;whom  用于指代
9.The places outside the towns where they were sent to live 人(第 2 句)。
were the poorest parts of South Africa.
10....we were put into a position in which we had either to 
accept we were less important,or fight the government.

                           [语  法  精  要  点  拨]
    一、关系副词的用法
    关系副词在引导定语从句时,其功能相当于介词短语,在句中作状语。

when,where,why   在定语从句中分别作时间状语、地点状语和原因状语。
    1.when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。
    I still remember the day when I first went to the Great Wall.
    我还记得我第一次去长城的那一天。
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     The day when we get together will come soon.
     我们重聚的日子很快就会来的。
     注意:若时间名词后面的定语从句的引导词在从句中作主语或宾语,则改

 用 which 或 that 引导。
     Do you remember the days(which/that)we spent together?
     你还记得我们一起度过的那些日子吗?(关系词在从句中作                         spent 的宾语)
     2.where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。
     The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.
     我 10 年前居住的那所房子已经被拆了。
     He is now working in the factory where his father worked.
     现在他正在他父亲工作过的那家工厂工作。
     注意:若地点名词后面的定语从句的引导词在从句中作主语或宾语,则改

 用 which 或 that。
     The school(which/that)we visited yesterday is newly built.
     我们昨天参观的那所学校是新建的。

     (关系代词    which/that 在从句中作宾语)
     3.why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。
     The reason why he succeeded in the exam is that he studied very hard.
     他考试成功的原因是他学习很认真。

     注意:reason  后的定语从句的引导词若在从句中作主语或宾语,则改用
which 或 that。
     This is the reason(which/that)our teacher gave us for doing it.
     这就是我们老师给我们的做此事的理由。(关系代词在从句中作宾语)
     He gave me a reason that/which was reasonable.
     他给了我一个合情合理的理由。(关系代词在从句中作主语)
     [即时演练    1]

     ①He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

     ②The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

     ③This is the reason which/that he offered at the meeting.
     二、关系代词作介词的宾语
     关系代词作介词的宾语时,为了使关系代词与先行词的关系更加紧凑,可
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以将从句中的介词提到关系代词前,形成“介词+关系代词”结构。该结构中

的关系代词可用       which,whom  或  whose。
    1.介词的选用。
    “介词+关系代词”结构中的介词可以依据与从句中谓语动词的搭配、与
先行词的搭配或句子意义来确定。
    This is the camera with which he often takes photos.
    这就是他经常用来拍照的相机。(根据与先行词的搭配确定)
    This is the pilot with whom my father has worked for ten years.
    这就是和我爸爸一起工作了            10 年的那位飞行员。(根据意义搭配确定)
    [名师点津] 
    (1)某些在从句中充当时间、地点或原因状语的“介词+关系代词”可以同
关系副词    when、where  和 why 互换。
    I still remember the time when(=in which)I was in college.
    我仍然记得我上大学的那段时光。
    This is the hotel where(=in which)they stayed.
    这就是他们待过的旅馆。
    This is the reason why(=for which)he left in a hurry.
    这就是他匆匆离去的原因。

    (2)有些“动词+介词”短语,如            look for,look after,send for,call on,

come across,long for 等,不可拆开把介词置于关系代词之前。
    The doctor that you sent for has not come.
    你派人去请的那个医生还没有来。

    2.关系代词的选择
    “介词+关系代词”既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定

语从句。在此结构中,先行词指人时关系代词用                     whom,不可用      who/that;先行
词指物时关系代词用         which,不能用    that。
    This is the student for whom I bought a book.
    这就是我给其买书的那个学生。
    This is the ship by which I went to Shanghai.
    这就是我去上海所乘的船。
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     3.“名词/数词/代词等+介词           of+关系代词”结构。有时“介词+关系代
 词”前还会有名词、数词、代词等,表示部分、整体、数量等概念。

     ①The river,the banks of which are covered with trees,flows to the sea.
     这条河流入大海,河的两岸种满了树。

     ②He has three sons,two of whom are teachers.
     他有三个儿子,其中有两个是老师。

     ③Maria has written two novels,both of which have been made into television 
series.
     玛丽亚已经写了两部小说,这两部都被拍成了电视剧。

     [即时演练    2]

     ①Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears,
none of which has been proved.
     ②Many young people,most of whom were well­educated,headed for remote 
 regions to chase their dreams.
     ③Is this the car for which you paid a high price?
                            [语  法  应  用  落  实]

     Ⅰ.单句语法填空
     1.The valley where the town lies is very beautiful.
     2.I will never forget the days when we stayed together in the countryside.
     3.He is a teacher of rich experience,from whom much can be learned.
     4.Andrew  lives alone and enjoys the company of a pet cat,of which he's 
 grown so fond.
     5.The reason why he was late was that something was wrong with his bike on 
 the way.
     6.The film in which he played the leading role was a great success.
     7.The house for which he paid 200,000 yuan is now worth 350,000 yuan.
     8.The man from whom I got a letter was my brother.
     9.In our city there are several big public parks to which many people can go to 
 enjoy the beautiful scenery.
     10.This is the factory that/which I visited last year.
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    Ⅱ.完成句子
    1.愚人节是人们可以和朋友开玩笑的日子。

    April Fool's Day is a day on which/when people play jokes on friends. 
                                                 【导学号:11132055】

    2.1945 年是二战结束的时间。
    The year 1945 was the time in which/when the Second World War was at an 
end.
    3.这附近有没有可以买到花的商店?
    Is there a shop near here at which/where I can buy some flowers?
    4.我在我们吃午餐的那家餐馆里丢了钱包。
    I lost my wallet in the restaurant at which/where we had lunch.
    5.我不给你写信的原因是我不知道你的地址。

    The reason for which/why I didn't write to you was that I didn't know your 
address.
    6.你能告诉我你没参加他的生日宴会的原因吗?

    Can you tell me the reason for which/why you didn't come to his birthday party?
    7.任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
    There are occasions when/on which one must give in.
    8.他在当地的一所语法学校接受教育,之后他去了剑桥大学。
    He was educated at a local grammar school,after which he went to Cambridge.
    9.请把书放在你容易找到的地方。
    Keep the books in a place in which/where you can find them easily.
    10.让我最吃惊的不是他说的话而是他说话的方式。
    What surprised me most was not what he said but the way that/in which he said 
it.
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