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2018-2019 高考英语短文改错专项练习之代词

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                    高考短文改错专项练习之代词

                                      教学内容


                                        代词

重点诠释

    高考短文改错题所考查的代词主要涉及人称代词、物主代词、不定代词、指示代词和关系
代词等。由于代词主要用来代替上文提到的人或物,因而代词错误往往同上下文具有密切的联
系,一般较为隐蔽,不易被发现。大家在判断时可以从以下角度入手:

    1.代词指代的是人还是物。

    2.代词指代的是可数名词还是不可数名词。

    3.代词指代的是特指还是泛指概念。

    4.代词指代的概念是表示两者之间还是三者或三者以上。

    5.代词所表示的是肯定还是否定概念。

   重点一:代词误用

   代词误用在高考短文改错中所占比例较大,主要涉及以下考点:

   1.易混不定代词由于含义、范围、搭配不同导致误用

  【典例   1】We haven’t enough books for anybody; some of you will have to share.

解析:anybody→everybody。本题考查部分否定的用法。由于忽略后半句语境要求没有判断出
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前半句考查否定的用法。not           与 all, both, very, each, often, always 以及 everyone, everywhere, 
everything 等连用构成部分否定。         注意  every 和 each 的区别:    

    ⑴every 强调全体的概念,each        强调个体概念。如:

    Every student in our school works hard. 

    我们学校的学生都很用功。

    Each student may have one book.. 

    每个学生都可以有一本书。

    ⑵every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each             指两个以上的人或物          (含两个)。如:

    There are beautiful trees and flowers on every side of the square.

    广场的每侧都有漂亮的树木和花卉。

    There are green grass and red flowers on each side of the river.

    河两岸都是绿草和红花。

    ⑶every 只作形容词,不可单独使用,each             可作代词或形容词。如:

    Every student has to take exercise.

    每个学生都得进行锻炼。

    Each boy has to take exercise.

       每个学生都得进行锻炼。

    Each of the boys has to take exercise.

       每个学生都得进行锻炼。

    ⑷every 有“每隔……”的意思,each        没有。如:
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    She ccomes to see us every other week.

    她每隔一周来看望我们一次。

    The Olympic Games are held every four years. 

    奥运会每隔四年举行一次。

    ⑸every 与  not 连用,表示部分否定, each        和  not 连用表示全部否定。如:

    Every man is not honest. 

    并非每个人都诚实。

    Each man is not honest.  

    这儿每个人都不诚实。

   2.忽略特定语境要求,使用代词不当

  【典例   2】We asked John and Jerry, but both of them could offer a satisfactory explanation.

   解析:both→neither。本题考查不定代词所指代的范围以及基本意思。句中                            but 一词是解
题的关键,暗示前边所提“两人都没有”给出令人满意的解释,应用                            neither。注意以下几个不定
代词的用法区别:

     either  “两者中任何一个”,可修饰或代替单数可数名词。

     neither“两者中没有一个”的意思,修饰或代替单数可数名词。

     none  既可以指人又可以指物,代替不可数或可数名词作主语时。

     all    一般与复数名词连用时,表示“所有的”、“全部的”,指三个或三个以上的人或物。

     both  表示“两者都”的意思,用作定语、宾语、主语和同位语,可以指人或指物。

   Here are two pens. You may take either of them.

   这里有两只钢笔。你可以拿其中任何一只。
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   Neither of us is a teacher. 

   我们俩都不是教师。

   I want to drink some milk but there is none in the cup.

   我想喝点牛奶,但杯子里一点也没有剩下。

   Not all the ants go out for food.

   并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。

   He gave me all the money.

   他把全部的钱给了我。

   This maths problem can be worked out in both ways.

   这道数学题可以用两种方法演出来。

   3.代词的数、格、形与具体语境不协调造成错误等。

  【典例   3】Let you and I promise not to quarrel about such an unimportant matter any more.

   解析:I→me。本题考查人称代词作宾语的基本用法。let                       sb. do sth.意为“让某人做某事”,
因此这里人称代词作宾语,应用宾格。建议考生搞清楚人称代词和物主代词基本变化,见下表:


       分类      人称代词主格         人称代词宾格         形容词性物主代         名词性物主代词
       项目                                          词

       人称       单数     复数      单数      复数     单数      复数       单数      复数

       第一人     I       we    me       us    my        our    mine      ours
       称

       第二人     you     you   you      you   your      your   yours     yours
       称
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       第三人     he/she  they  him/her  the   his/her/i their  his/hers/i theirs
       称       /it           /it      m     ts               ts

   重点二:代词漏用

   代词漏用的情况并不是很多,考点相对集中在:

   1.it 作形式主语或宾语时漏用

  【典例   4】The chairman thought necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting.

   解析:necessary   前加   it。本题考查代词      it 作形式宾语的用法。结合语境,这里               it 作形式宾
语,代替后边的不定式短语。It            作引导词的几种常用句型:

   ⑴It is +形容词/名词+to do…

   It is necessary for us to master a foreign language skillfully.

   我们有必要熟练掌握一门外语。

   It is a pity for you to miss the film. 

   很遗憾你错过了这部电影。

   ⑵It is +形容词/名词+that…

   It is necessary that all (should) be present at the meeting in time.

   全体人员必须按时出席会议。

   It is no wonder that he has passed the examination.

   难怪他考试及格了。

   ⑶It is +过去分词+that…

   It is requested that we (should) be ready to start out at any time.

   要求我们做好随时出发的准备。
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⑷It+不及物动词+that…

It doesn’t seem to me that we have been neglecting our duty.

我感觉我们对职责没有疏忽。

It happened that I wasn’t there that day.

恰好那天我不在那儿。

⑸动词+it+形容词/名词+to do…

We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day.

我们认为每天打扫教室是我们的责任。

⑹动词+it+形容词/名词+that…

I think it best that you should stay here.

我认为你最好呆在家里。

I used to feel it a terrible thing that my mother should have to toil so endlessly.

我曾经老觉得母亲不得不无休止地操劳是一件可怕的事情。

⑺It takes sb. time to do sth. 

It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall.

数以千计的人们花费数年修建长城。

⑻It is the first time that…

It is the first time I have been here.

这是我第一次来到这里。

⑼It is high time that…
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   It is about time (that) the children went to bed.

   孩子们该睡觉了。

   ⑽It is…since/when/that…

   It will be not long before he finishes his job.

   没过多久他会完成他的工作。

   It is not help but obstacles that make a man.

   使人成才的,不是助力,而是阻力。

   It was in the park that Tom met your sister yesterday.

   汤姆昨天是在公园见到了你妹妹。

   ⑾It is no good/use…doing…

   It is no good learning English without speaking English.

   学英语而不说英语是没有用的。

   2.依据特定语境漏用部分词汇造成语义混乱

  【典例   5】I don’t think we’ve met before. You’re taking me for someone.

   解析:someone     后加  else。本题考查根据语境逻辑选用适当的代词。我想我们以前没有见
过面。你是把我当成别人了。take…for            把……误认为。someone else      别人;他人。else      是形容词,
意为“其他的;另外的”,常用在不定代词或疑问代词之后。如:

   Nobody else understands me as well as you do.

   别人没有一个象你这样了解我的。

   I've taken somebody else's umbrella.

   我把别人的雨伞拿走了。
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   What else do you see?

   你看到别的东西吗?

   3. 某些代词短语不够完整造成代词漏用

  【典例   6】Mary and Jones have arrived, but other students in the class aren’t here yet.

   解析:other   前加   the。本题考查     other,  the   other,  others 等不定代词的用法。other 
students 只表示其他部分学生,与语境不符,而                the other students 表示除了 Mary 和  Jones 以外
所有的学生。请看相关不定代词的用法:

    ⑴another 修饰或代替单数可数名词,意为"(三个或三个以上的)另一个",不能指两者中

的另一个,在句中可作宾语和定语。another                表示"另外……"、"又……",用于"another+数词+复
数名词"结构。如:

    Have another piece of cake.

    再吃一块饼吧。

    Please fatch another cup for me.

    请替我另拿一个杯子来。

    This hat does not fit me; please show me another.

    这顶帽子尺寸不对头,请再拿一顶给我看看。

    He wants to buy another three books. 

    他想再买三本书。

    ⑵other 是形容词,表示"其他的",在句中作定语。如:

    There are some other people waiting to see you.

    还有另外一些人等着要见你。
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    Have you any other book on this subject?

    你还有别的关于这个题目的书吗?

    ⑶the    other 指"两者中的另一个",常与          one 连用,构成"One…the         other..."句型。the 

other 作定语修饰复数名词,表示另一方中的"全部中其余的",相当于                          the others。如:

    Both my uncles are abroad, one in Paris and the other in New York.

    我的两个叔叔都在国外,一个在巴黎,另一个在纽约。

    One of them is yours;the other is mine. 

    一个是你的,另一个是我的。

    Where are the other books?

    其他的书在哪里?

    ⑷others 泛指"其他的人或物(但不是全部)",常用于                  some…others…others…,意为"一

些……一些……一些"。如:

    Some like this, others like that.

    有些人喜欢这个,自些人喜欢那个。

    Some of us like singing and dancing, others go in for sports.

    我们中有些喜欢唱歌跳舞,而另一些人则喜爱体育。

    ⑸the others 表示"(特定范围内)其他的人或物",是特指,后面不能跟任何名词。如:

    He came in time, but the others were late.

    他按时来了,可是其他的人迟到了。

   重点三:代词造成的主谓不一致

   代词造成的主谓不一致的情况在短文改错中非常普遍,主要见于以下情况:
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   1.指代关系混乱造成主谓不一致

  【典例   7】The students each has an English Chinese Dictionary.

   解析:has→have。本题考查同位语的识别以及对主谓一致的影响。本句中,each                              作同位语,
真正的主语是      The students,因此谓语用复数形式。当然本句可改写为:Each of the students has 
an English Chinese Dictionary.

   相关提示:利用代词考查主谓一致,需要考虑:代替的名词是否可数、可数名词是否是单
数等。

   2.某些代词用法掌握不牢造成主谓不一致错误

  【典例   8】 All that can be done have been done. 

   解析:have→has。本题考查不定代词              all 作主语主谓一致问题。all       指人作主语时,谓语用
复数形式,指物时,谓语用单数形式。

【好题调研】

1. There is a No.2 trolleybus and a No.24 bus; any will take you there.

2. Its your decision, of course, but I advise you to take it.

3. If you want to change for a double room you'll have to pay other $15.

4. We had to do the washing, cleaning and shopping by us.

5. If this dictionary is not yours, who else can it be?

6. The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home.

7. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work hard, but which didn’t help.

8. At once I apologized and controlled me at my best till the dinner started.

9. And I came to understand that was not easy to earn money. 

10. Luckily, the teacher did not punish for cheating but instead gave me a second chance.
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答案与解析:

1. any→either。本题是语境逻辑考虑不周造成。这里应用                  either 表示“两者之一”。

2. Its→It’s。本题考查易混不定代词的区别。Its            是形容词性物主代词,而           It’s 是 It is 的缩写,意
  思也不同。

3. other→another。another $15 表示“另外  15 元”,相当于     15 other dollars。

4. us→ourselves。本题考查反身代词的用法。根据语境应用                 by ourselves 表示“靠我们自己”。

5. who→whose 或 else→else’s。本题考查句子内在逻辑判断。whose else=who else’s,表示“其他
  谁的(物品)”。

6. his→their。不定代词指代一致性。The Smiths        表示“史密斯夫妇”或“史密斯一家人”,复数概念,
  因此后边用     did their best 与之呼应。

7. which→it。本题考查句法用法。but         是并列连词,引导并列句,而             which 引导定语从句,前后
  矛盾,所以应理解为并列句比较合适。

8. me→myself。本题是反身代词的语境运用错误。根据语境这里指“我”自我调控,反身代词作
  宾语。

9. was→it。本题考查    it 作形式主语的用法。这里          it 代替后边的不定式短语作形式主语。

10. punish 后加 me。本题是代词语境运用错误。punish sb. for sth.因为……而惩罚某人。

【强化闯关】

1. No progress was made in the trade talks as none side would accept the conditions of the other.  

2. Staying with an English family it will provide you with a chance to practise your spoken English. 

3. I need some blue ink today but there is nothing at hand.

4. The day before the speech contest English teacher talked to me.

5. The thieves fled the town separately, every carrying a bag.
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6. Most of the housework was done by two members of the family, my sister and mine. 

7. Cut the apple into halves so that the twins may each get other half.

8. Few pleasures can equal those of a cool drink on a hot day.

9. One day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher. 

10. Was you that I saw last night at the concert?

11. I prefer a street in a small town to that in such a large city as Shanghai.

12. There is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.

13. The Parkers bought a new house but he will need a lot of work before they can move in.

14. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have it.

15. There’re so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind what to buy.

答案与解析:

1. none→neither。本题考查不定代词基本用法。none              用于三者以上,而         the other 用于二者之
  间,结合语境谈判是在两者之间,所以改                   none 为 neither。

2. 去掉  it。本题考查句法应用,因为            Staying with an English family 可以直接作主语,所以后边
  的  it 是多余的,应去掉。

3. nothing→none。本题考查易混不定代词的区别。nothing              意为“没有东西”,侧重回答有没有,
  而侧重表示“没有一个人”或“没有一点东西”侧重数量,显然这里指后者。

4. English 前加 my。本题是单数名词前修饰语问题。teacher               是可数名词,因此前边应用             my 进
  行限定。

5. every→each。本题是混淆了       every 和 each 的区别。every   是形容词,只能作定语,而            each 可
  作代词或形容词,作主语、宾语、同位语等。

6. mine→me。本题是代词指代一致性错误。根据语境,my sister and me                  作前边   two members of 
  the family 的同位语,又位于介词之后,因此应用宾格。
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7. other 前加  the。halves 本题是忽略语境关键词导致错误。halves              暗示总共只有两份,各取其
  一,即“两者之一”。

8. those→that。本题考查代词指代用法。that            多替代单数可数名词或不可数名词,而                  those 代
  替复数名词。这里         that 代替 the pleasure of a cool drink。

9. showed 后加 it。本题是动词短语结构不完整。show…to sb.把……给某人看。

10. Was 后加  it。本题是固定句型运用错误。原句是强调句型,即                     It is/was…that…,应注意结构
  完整性。

11. that→one。本题考查代词指代用法。that           和  one 都可以代替单数可数名词,但              that 表示特
  指,而    one 表示泛指,the one    才表示特指。

12. There→It。本题考查    it 作形式主语的用法。这里          it 代替后边的主语从句作形式主语。

13. he→it。本题考查代词指代用法。but           后边  it 指代时间,而不是主语          The Parkers。

14. it→one。本题考查不定代词的用法。it           可指上文提到的人或物,是同一个对象,而                    one 指代
  上文提到的同一类人或物。

15. what→which。本题考查易混不定代词的区别。what                和 which 都可以引导从句作宾语,前者
强调内容,后者强调特定范围内的选择,有所不同。


小结:


第二节   (共  5 小题;每小题    3 分,满分   15 分)

根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

    We all know the importance of curiosity, and here are some tips on how to develop it. 
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    Keep an open mind. This is essential if you are to have a curious mind. Be open to learning, unlearning, and 
relearning things.    36    Therefore, you should be prepared to accept this possibility and change your mind. 

       37    Most people just accept the world as it is. This way, they will certainly lose the “holy curiosity”. Try 
to dig deeper beneath the surface of what is around you. A sure way to dig deeper beneath the surface is asking 
questions. What, why, when, who, where, and how are the questions curious people always ask.

    Don’t label anything as boring. Whenever you label something as boring, you close one more door of 
possibilities. Curious people are unlikely to consider things boring.    38    Even if they don’t yet have time to 
explore them, they will leave the door open to be visited another time. 

    Take learning as something fun. If you see learning as a burden, there’s no way you will want to dig deeper into 
anything. That will just make the burden heavier. However, if you think of learning as something fun, you will 
naturally want to dig deeper.    39   

    Read diverse materials. It will introduce you to the possibilities and excitement of other worlds which may 
attract your interest in exploring further. One easy way to do this is through reading diverse materials.    40    
It’ll feed your mind with the excitement of a new world. 

A. Never take things as granted. 

B. Don’t spend too much time on just one world. 

C. Try to pick a book or magazine on a new subject. 

D. Some things you know and believe might be wrong. 

E. It doesn’t matter that you don’t agree to others’ opinions. 

F. Instead, they always see these things as a door to an exciting new world. 

G. So look at life through the glasses of fun and enjoy the learning process. 


第三部分    英语知识运用(共两节,满分             55 分)

第一节    完型填空(共      20 小题;每小题      2 分,满分    40 分)

阅读下面短文,       从短文后所给各题的四个选项(A、B、C                和 D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。
        

   Jazzy is a lovely pug(哈巴狗) who always seems to be smiling. You can’t help but   41

when you look at Jazzy now, because you would never guess the horrible situation she was rescued from and the   
42   this little dog had.
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    Jazzy was taken from her   43   owners, who were immediately   44   with animal cruelty. Why? Because 
neighbors had   45   seeing little Jazzyy moving around her back yard with two broken front legs. Her owners, 
who were supposed to   46   her most, did absolutely nothing about it. They had never sought any kind of   47   
for poor Jazzy. Nobody knew how it   48   and it was believed that she was hit by a car, or that someone had 
done this to her.

      49   Jazzy’s cruel owners didn’t take her to the veterinarian, her condition went from bad to worse. Over 
time her front right leg   50   loosely, and her left leg was permanently bent at a sharp angle. The pain must have 
been astonishing. She moved around like a baby seal. She needed   51  .

    In a Los Angeles animal shelter, things got even   52  . The shelter could not provide the costly operations 
that could be   53   to restore Jazzy’s ability to   54   and lead a normal life, and it was impossible to find a 
family who would be able to   55   a dog in this condition. The difficult   56   was made to euthanize(使安乐
死)sweet Jazzy.

    All   57   was lost. Then a miracle happened. A volunteer from Dogs Without Borders saw Jazzy. Jazzy was 
pulled out of the   58   and rescuers got busy working on a plan to ensure that Jazzy would get treatment. For 
months, Dogs Without Borders cared for Jazzy, while   59   enough money for her operations. Donations came 
in. Finally in December 2013 the money was enough and it was time to get her operations   60  ! By the spring of 
2014, Jazzy had fully recovered.

 41. A. complain       B. forgive        C. celebrate      D. laugh

 42. A. pain           B. shock          C. happiness      D. responsibility

 43. A. lazy           B. original       C. angry          D. new

 44. A. combined       B. charged        C. compared        D. provided

 45. A. reported       B. imagined       C. regretted      D. avoided

 46. A. care for       B. depend on      C. look for       D. talk about

 47. A. food           B. contact        C. treatment      D. information 

 48. A. fell           B. felt           C. improved       D. happened

 49. A. If             B. Until          C. Although       D. Since

 50. A. stepped        B. stood          C. hung           D. waved

 51. A. instruction    B.encouragement   C. help           D. discipline

 52. A. harder         B. worse          C. safer          D. clearer
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 53. A. prevented      B. required       C. released       D. checked

 54. A. breathe        B. bark           C. walk           D. listen

 55. A. adopt          B. buy            C. watch          D. catch

 56. A. promise        B. decision       C. appointment    D. experiment

 57. A. hope           B. wealth         C. medicine       D. connection

 58. A. hospital       B. yard           C. shelter        D. home

 59. A. borrowing      B. saving         C. earning        D. raising

 60. A. corrected      B. done           C. fed            D. developed


第二节   语法填空(共      10 小题;每小题      1.5 分,满分   15 分)

阅读下面材料,       在空白处填入适当的内容或括号内单词的正确形式(不多于三个单词)。

    Last weekend as I was riding in the bike lane alongside the truck, we reached a crossing and it turned to the 
right,   61  (hit) me and my bicycle. Even more upsetting was the fact   62   the driver didn’t stop afterward.   
63  , I was not injured and my bicycle was damaged, but still usable.

    Even days after I reported the event to the police, they failed to   64  (proper) solve this situation or even 
return my calls. Eventually, I decided   65  (contact) University Student Legal Services for help about this matter. 
The small damage may not seem worth all   66   trouble, but what if I had been seriously   67  (injure)? Will 
anyone see punishment for breaking traffic laws and damaging my property?

    Unfortunately, my experience is common, and   68  (accident) between bikes and cars occur far too often. A 
comprehensive study   69  (report) that of the nearly 3,000 cyclist-motorist crashes that occurred between 2000 
and 2010, about 20 percent were hit-and-runs.

    Bicycles are held to the same standards as motor vehicles in most cases ,   70   means that cyclists must 
obey all the traffic rules, and also have the right to get damages in the accidents. I urge both cyclists and motorists 
to become familiar with their rights and duties when sharing the roads.


第四部分    写作(共两节,满分         35 分)

第一节   短文改错(共      10 小题;每小题      1 分,满分    10 分)

假定在英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文。请你修改你同桌写的以下作文。文中共有                                      10 处语言错误, 
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每句中最多有两处。错误涉及一个单词的增加、删除或修改。

  增加:在缺词处加一个漏词符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词。

  删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。

  修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词。

  注意:1.每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;

        2.只允许修改     l0 处,多者(从第     11 处起)不计分。

 I, together with my two friends, were eating dinner at a Chinese restaurant, locating in the center of New York. I 
noticed the young woman eating with two kids. We stopped by and I asked the kids if he believed in Santa. The elder 
boy, whom was about seven years old, pointed his younger sister and said, “She does, but I don’t.” I told them Santa 
was real and as we were paying for our dinner, I paid for theirs, either. I didn’t know that whether the woman was 
alone, but I grow up with my mother supporting us four kids alone. I still feel good thinking I may have helped on 
some small ways. 


  第二节   书面表达(满分       25 分)

 假如你是一名高三年级学生。你发现班上有些同学晚上学习到深夜,白天也不安排休息时间,但往往课堂
上昏昏欲睡;有些同学饮食习惯不好,不吃早餐。请你写一篇发言稿,在班会上劝同学们合理安排作息时间,
注意健康饮食,      保证学习好、身体好。

注意:发言稿须包含上述要点,但可适当发挥,使讲话完整通顺。


    It’ s a pleasure for me to have a chance to make a short speech today. ________________

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

  That’s all. Thank you for listening!
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                                        参考答案

听力:

 1-5 BBCCA   6-10 BCCAB    11-15 ABBCA   16-20 CBAAC

阅读:( 60  分)

(A)   AACA     (B)ACA     (C)CBCA    (D)   DDBA   (七选五)DAFGC


完形:(40    分)

41-45 DABBA    46-50 ACDDC    51-55 CBBCA     56 -60 BACDB

语法填空:(15      分)

61. hitting    62. that   63. Thankfully / Luckily / Fortunately    64. properly

65 to contact  66. the   67 injured    68 accidents  69 reported  70 which

改错:(10    分)

 I, together with my two friends, were eating dinner at a Chinese restaurant, locating in the center of New York. 

                           was                                located

 I noticed the young woman eating with two kids. We stopped by and I asked the kids if he believed in Santa. 

         a                                                            they

 The elder boy, whom was bout seven years old, pointed his younger sister and said, “She does, but I don’t.” 

             who                             at

 I told them Santa was real and as we were paying for our dinner, I paid for theirs, either. I didn’t know 

                                                                   too

 that whether the woman was alone, but I grow up with my mother supporting us four kids alone. I still 

                                   grew

 feel good thinking I may have helped on some small ways. 

                                in                              
                        中国现代教育网      www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  作文:(25    分)

    It’ s a pleasure for me to have a chance to make a short speech today. Recently I have found that some of our 
classmates study late into the night and do not spare any time to take a rest during the day. So they often cannot 
help falling asleep in class. And some classmates seldom have breakfast, which is also a bad habit and will surely do 
harm to their health.

   In my opinion, it’s extremely important for us to have enough sleep an a proper diet. We must try to make wise 
use of our time, and only in this way can we keep fit and study well. I wonder if you agree with me.

   That’s all. Thank you for listening !
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