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高三英语语法复习之定语从句

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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                     M5 Grammar       定语从句
Attributive Clause(定语从句)
I 概念 
在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句.被修饰的名词或代词叫
先行词。 
                         引导词
He is an English teacher (who likes singing songs).
           
           先行词              定语从句

II 引导词     关系代词: who﹑whom﹑that﹑which﹑whose 
           关系副词: where﹑when﹑why 
注意: what  不会出现在定语从句中;that           一定不会出现在非限制性定语从句
III 关系词在从句中的成分与作用 

       关系词                先行词所指                关系词在句中作用

             that            人/物                  主、宾、表

            which             物                    主、宾、
 关系
 代词          who              人                     主、宾

            whom              人                       宾

            whose            人/物                      定

 关系          when            时间                    时间状语
 副词
            where            地点                    地点状语

             why             原因                    原因状语
注意:    定语从句的考点就是选取恰当的关系词,比走的两步是:一、确定先行
词,二、必须判断现行词在从句中的成分。
IV 关系代词引导的定语从句: 
1.主语: 
  The boy_________ is looking around is my friend. 
2.主语: 
  The car________________ is red was damaged yesterday. 
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3.宾语: 
  The question___________ I don’t understand is about grammar. 
4.宾语: 
  Is that the teacher  ______________you referred to? 
5.表语: 
  She is no longer the girl __________ she used to be. 
6.定语:
  Mr King, ________ legs were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital.  

★注意 
1. 在下面几种情况下必须用           that 不能用  which 引导定语从句。
⑴  先行词是不定代词        all, few, little, much, everything, nothing, anything 等。
   All _____ we have to do is to practice every day.
(2) 先行词被   all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some 等修饰。
   I have read all the books ______ you gave me.
(3) 先行词被序数词、the last      或形容词的最高级所修饰。
   The first thing _______  I learned will never be forgotten.
   This is the most interesting film ______ I have ever seen.
⑷  先行词被    the only, the very 修饰。
   This is the very pen______ I am looking for.
   He is the only person _____ I want to talk to.
⑸  先行词既有人又有物时。 
   They talked of things and persons_____ they remembered.
⑹  当句中已有     who  或 which 时,为避免重复。
   Who is the man _______ is talking to John?
⑺  如有两个定语从句,其中一个已经用了                 which,则另一个用       that.
   Edison built a factory which produced things _______ had never been seen.

2. 只用  which 不用  that 的两种情况:
1)非限制性定语从句中,也就是逗号之后。
2)介词+关系代词(which, whom, whose        )
    I lost my watch, ___________ is not found .
    This is the book ___________ you can refer.
3. 介词的后面只用       whom 不用   who
   He is the person with ______ I had discussed it. 
4. 关系代词    whose 的用法:用作定语。         既指人又指物。 
   指物时可与      of which 互换使用。    指人时可用      of whom  替换.
(1)Mr King, ___________ legs were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital. 
    Mr King, the legs of ______ were badly hurt, was quickly taken to hospital.
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(2)Have you seen my book___________ cover is red?
     Have you seen my book the cover of ____________ is red?
 Ex:
  1. I know the doctor_____________ daughter studies abroad.
  2. We shall make a decision about Ms King __________story I have told you.
5. 关系代词的省略
  关系代词在从句中做宾语时可以省,               做主语时不能省略 
(1)主语,   不可省略 
  He came from a family __________ / __________ is very poor.
  I met someone __________ / __________ said he knew you. 
(2)宾语,可以省略 
  That is the job (_______ / ________ )I am hunting for.

6. 定语从句中的主谓一致 
   one of + 复数名词+who/which/that +复数谓语
   the only one of +  复数名词+ who/which/that +单数谓语
(1) She is one of the students who ______(be) praised at the meeting yesterday.
(2) He is the only one of the students who ______________ (be) a winner of 
    scholarship for 3 years.

7. 定语从句中介词的搭配 
⑴根据从句中的谓语动词的搭配
                on __________ I spent five Yuan .
                for ___________ I paid five Yuan 
This is the book   from__________ I learnt a lot
                in  __________ there are few new words
                about__________  Tom often talks 
a) This is the house in ___________ my grandfather once lived .
b) The film of __________ I’m speaking is to be shown next week .
c) This is the man from          I learn the news.
⑵根据先行词的搭配习惯
               the day on_______    I joined the league.
I still remember  the days during___________  I lived in the country.
                the years in __________ _ I stayed there.
注意:whom,    which  作介词宾语时,介词可放在关系代词之前,这时关系代词
     不能省略,也可放在原来的位置上,这时关系代词可以省略。
    This is the person for _________ you are looking.
  = This is the person (__________) you are looking for.
   This is the person (_________) you are going to work with .
  = This is the person with _________ you are going to work. 
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8. 关系代词在从句中已经充当句子成分,要注意不要再有多余的主语或宾语 
   改错: 
   a) This is the book that I want to read it.
   b) He goes jogging everyday, which I think it is very good for our health. 

V 关系副词引导的定语从句: 
1.Where:   当先行词是一个表示地点的名词,并且关系词在从句中做地点状语
         时,定语从句常用       where 引导,相当于介词+which 
        (1) A book office is a place __________ tickets are sold.
       = A book office is a place in __________ tickets are sold.
        (2) This is the house ____________he lives.
       = This is the house in ________ he lives .
  区分:当先行词是一个表示地点的名词,                  如果关系词在从句中不是作状语,而
       是作宾语时仍用        that/which . 
        This is the house __________he lives in.
  注意:当先行词是        situation 时,从句用  where 引导。
       You could get into a situation ________you have to decide immediately. 
2.when:当先行词是一个表示时间的名词,并且关系词在从句中做时间状语时,
      定语从句常用       when 引导。其作用相当于“介词+which”
       (1) I still remember the year _________ we studied together. 
         = I still remember the year in _________we studied together.
  区分:如果关系词在从句中不是作状语,而是作宾语时仍用                          that/which . 
         I still remember the year (_______/________) we studied in together.
3. why: 关系副词    why 的先行词只有       reason , 在从句中做原因状语,         其作用相
       当于   for which . 
        Do you know the reason ________ I left early? 
       = Do you know the reason for _____________I left early?
  区分:如果关系词在从句中不是作状语,而是作宾语时仍用                          that/which .
        The reason ___________ he gave us was unacceptable.
对比下列句子(必须判断现行词在从句中的成分,                       同一个先行词由于所做成分
不同,所选关系词是不同的)
   1. I’ll never forget the days ________we worked together.
   2. I’ll never forget the days ____________we spent together.
   3. Paris is among the cities ________he worked.
   4. Paris is among the cities ______________he visited.
   5. I don’t know the reason __________she turned me down.
   6. We don’t believe the reason ___________he gave us.
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Exercise
I. 填空
 1. The woman__________ I sat next to was a pop singer.
2. Just now I met Mr. Smith, _________was named our new headmaster last 
  week.
 3. The pen with __________ I wrote the composition is nowhere to be found.
 4. Do you work in the company __________manager is a young girl?
 5. This is the only thing ________ I can do for you.
 6. I have lost the very book _________ I bought yesterday.
 7. Have you read the second book ________ is written by him?
 8. The man and the horse ________ had fallen into the river were drowned.
 9. She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students______ allows them 
    to communicate freely with each other.
 10. I still remember the days __________ I paid a visit to Beijing.
 11. I still remember the days __________ we spent in Beijing.
 12. Do you know the reason________  / ________  ________ he was fired?
 13. Do you know the reason __________he told me?
 14. Is this the school_________ you studied two years ago?
 15. Is this the school _________ you visited two years  ago ?
 16. He has two daughters, both of __________ are college students.
 17. He has two daughter, and both of _________ are college students.
 18. She won a prize, _________ made us glad.
 19.________we all know, success comes from hard work.

II 改错:
1. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person whom she could turn for help.
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2. Which we can expect, he is the best student in our class.
3. They talked of things and persons which they remembered in the school.
4. Which is the book which you bought yesterday?
5. I’ m grateful to my high school teacher, without whom help I wouldn’t be so 
  excellent.
7. Put the book back at the place that you found it.
8. Those whom don’t try to learn from others can’t achieve much.
9. The building where he used to live in has been pulled down.
10. The person whom I spoke just now is the manager I told you about.
11. The boy made a hole in the wall, which he could see what was happening in 
   the house.
12. The workers who legs had been badly hurt were taken to hospital.
13. In order to get started in this career, I am willing to accept any position I can 
    show my abilities.
14. The prize will go to the writer story shows the most imagination.
15. The old temple roof was damaged in a storm is now under repair.
16. Can you tell me the reason you were late today?


   Exercise 1
1.The cups, ________ were widely popular among young parents in the UK,                 
  were sold by a chain Boots between 2001 and 2002.
2.Catherine Lee, ________is in charge of Jackel China, said she heard of Ben’s    
  story on the Internet.
3.According to Lee, samples have already bee sent to Ben’s father, _______    
  will check the color of the cup.
4. Once confirmation is received, the factory will start producing 500 cups, 
   _______ will take a week and cost about 20,000 yuan.
5. The company has introduced the new service_________ allows some of its 
  users to stay updated on topics of interest to them.
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6. The show later toured the United States, __________ attracted over many  
  People.
7. The biggest challenge when producing this dance drama was to create a 
  production ________ would be accepted overseas.
8. This time, Tom, _______ is interested in Chinese culture, agreed to join in 
  the show.
9. Finally, we wanted to produce a show _______ could help an international   
  audience discover China more.
10. When your friend reads about the fun memories_______ you made 
   together, he /she will be moved and happy, all at once, recalling them.


Exercise 2
11.Touring the city from the air is one of the most unique and exciting ways 
  ______ you get a good feel for the city and get a good look at the city’s layout 
  (布局)
12.The city of Shanghai is the best vacation destination________ offers many  
   different things to see and do.
13. A duck is a friendly name for a World War II period vehicle, ________ has 
   been reworked to take passengers on tour around the city.
14. I learn from the newspaper that the Asian Winter Games will be held in the  
   city________ I was brought up and that some volunteers are needed.
15.I will try my best to do something __________ will help the Games to be a 
   great success.
16. He invited his students to his concerts, _________ were an opportunity 
   to hear good music.
17.She had the highest attended celebration party in history on December 26,  
  2016 , ____________ thousands of people from all over Mexico turned up for  
   the big event.
18.It all started from early December, __________ his father posted a video on  
   Facebook.
19.In the weeks __________ followed, his party became one of the most popular 
   topics ___________ people talked about in Mexico.
20.The reason _________ he joined in the show was ___________ he liked the  
   Chinese culture.
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Exercise 3
21. Our best friends are those_______ stand by us when all others back out.
22. If there is any time in your life ______ you are down, your friends will 
   help you overcome the difficulty. 
23.Some of the teachers manage to create a very deep impression ________  
   stays with their students into adulthood.
24.I met the best language teacher ________ I have ever had after my family’s 
   moving from Brazil to Germany.
25. The first thing _______ he asked us to do was make a sentence. 
26.We had conversations about various topics, during ________ I had this   
   valuable realization.
27.This is the best tea-time _________ I have ever had in my life.
28.Sarah grew up watching her brother, Charlie, __________ suffers autism (自            
   闭症),struggle socially.
29.I was so proud of The Sparkles and it was a moment __________ greatly   
   influenced the whole community.
30.I couldn’t have done it without all the students __________ stepped up to  
   create teams and joins us.

Exercise 4
31. News came that the trees in the park, _________ we often take exercise, were    
   blown down.
32. He agreed to come to my birthday party________ we had a good time.
33. Some people go gray at a young age ________ they are in high school.
34. If you offer students _______ are fond of art such an opportunity, I 
   believe they will give you a big surprise.
35. I like those moments__________ I concentrated on my performance.
36. Frost’s father died when Frost was 11, _________ left his mother with no 
   choice but to move back home with her parents.
37. He attended Dartmouth College, ___________ his grand parents thought he 
   would find success.
38. In 1973, his first book A Boy’s Will was published, the success of 
   ___________ brought him in contact with many important literary people.
39. Lennon was a famous musician in Cuba, _______ statue became a major  
   tourist attraction. 
40. I understood how powerful it was to give away the only money ___________ 
   I had ever saved.
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