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人教版新课标 高考英语第一轮复习教案 ---- 阅读理解(二)

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高中英语审核员

中国现代教育网
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一、教学内容:
阅读理解(二)
二、教学目标:
  1、掌握阅读题中五大题型
  2、结合练习掌握解题技巧

三、重点、难点:
    如何根据阅读理解题考查角度的不同,采用不同的解题技巧
  1、细节理解
  2、猜测词义 
  3、推理判断
  4、主旨大意
  5、观点态度

                              阅读理解专项复习(二)

一、推理判断:        这种题型属于主观题,是层次较高的设题。主要是检测考生能否通过文章
的字面意思去领悟作者的言外之意的能力。它要求考生依据全篇内在逻辑关系进行合乎逻
辑的推理判断。
    注意解题技巧:
  1. 不选择照抄原文的选项,选择有同义词解释的选项。
  2. 不选事实细节选项
  3. 不选非事实选项
  4. 选概括性/哲理性的选项
    常见提问形式有:
  1. It can be inferred/concluded from the passage that ______
  2.The passage suggests/implies that ____
  3.By the first sentence of the second paragraph, the author means _____
  4. We can conclude that_________.
  5. When the writer talks about..., what he really means is that_____.
  6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

SampleⅠ
    When the young waitress near my house started saying hello to me every day, I was very 
happy. She was at least fifteen years younger than I. One day she signed me to come near. When I 
walked over, she asked, “Are you single?” “Why, yes.” I answered, smiling at her happily. “So is 
my mother.” she said, “Would you like to meet her?” 
  1. The writer talked about the waitress’ age because he thought__________.
    A. she was young 
    B. it a pleasure to make friends with her
    C. she was beautiful             
    D. it strange for her to fall in love with him
  2. The waitress said hello to the writer every day because___________.
    A. she lived near his house             
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    B. he often went to visit her mother
    C. she wanted to be friendly with him    
    D. she loved him very much 
    (D C)

SampleⅡ
    Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. 
If metal is heated and then cooled very quickly, for example by dipping (浸) it in water, it will be 
very hard but also very brittle-that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but 
does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as it is wished, by annealing 
it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the 
heated metal takes to cool slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other 
material, such as glass. 
  1. Why do people put hot metal in water?
    A. To make it hard.            B. To make it soft.     
    C. To make it cool.            D. To make it brittle.
  2. In annealing, the required hardness of metal depends on ___________.
    A. the quantity of water used     
    B. the temperature of the metal
    C. the softness of the metal      
    D. the timing of the operation
  3. As suggested by the text, how can glass be made less brittle?
    A. It can be heated and then cooled quickly.    
    B. It can be cooled and then heated slowly.
    C. It can be heated and then cooled slowly.    
    D. It can be cooled and then heated quickly. 
    (D D C)

二、主旨大意:加工与浓缩信息的能力
  1. 标题类常见的题型: 
    1)The best title/ headline for this passage might be____.
    2)The text (passage) could be entitled          .
    3)What is the best title for the passage? 
    4)Which of the following would be suitable as a title for the passage? 
  2. 大意类常见题型
    1)This passage chiefly deals with____.
    2)What’s the topic of the article?


    3)What is the subject discussed in the text?[来源:学科网]
    4)With what topic is the passage chiefly concerned?
  3. 目的主旨大意类常见题型
    1)The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is______.
    2)The passage is meant to _____     
    3)The purpose of this article is _______
  4. 主题句呈现的形式 
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    A. 文首:提出主题,        随之用细节来解释,        支撑或发展主题句所表达的主题思想.                最常
见的演绎法写作方式。
Sample 1
    The panda is a popular animal. Stories about the panda in the Washington Zoo are always 
front page news and important features on television newscasts. Stuffed pandas are among the 
most popular toys for children, and panda postcards are always in demand in zoo gift shops.


Sample 2[来源:学科网 ZXXK]
    Today the problem of environment has become more and more serious. The world population 
is rising, so quickly that the world has become too crowded. We are using up our natural resources 
too quickly and at the same time we are polluting our environment with dangerous chemicals. If 
we continue to do this, human life on earth will not survive.

    B. 文尾:在表述细节后,归纳要点、印象、结论、建议或结果,以概括主题。这是英
语中最常见的归纳法写作方式。
    Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be 
left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching 
method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.

    C. 文中:通常前面只提出问题,文中的主题由随之陈述的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文
中导出,而后又作进一步的解释,支撑或发展。
    Nothing is as useful as a flashlight in a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so 
helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark 
situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand a camper also 
needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.

    D. 无主题句:即主题句隐含在全文中,没有明确的主题句。必须根据文篇中所提供的
事实细节,进行全面考虑,综合分析,然后找出共同的东西,归纳成一般概念。必须注意
的是,既不能以偏概全,也不能在概括时过于宽泛,要恰如其分。
    Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. 
He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, 
later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a 
corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.
    What is the main idea of the passage?
    A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer.        
    B. Bingham is a diligent student. 
    C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. 
    D. A good lawyer needs good education. 
    (C)

三、观点态度:既考查学生对字面意思的理解,也考查学生对作者写作目的、态度、观点等
的理解。正确理解作者的写作意图,所持的观点及阐述文章主题时的语气或对所论述的对
象的态度。—假如你是作者,你为什么要写本文?
    此类考题的主要形式:
  1. The writer’s purpose in writing this story is ______ .
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

  2. The text discusses men and women 50,000 years from now in order to show that _____ .
    注意:
    辨认三种作者使用的表达情感、态度及观点的词汇,以及承接上下文的连接词。
    贬义:disgust, critical, negative, tolerant, disappointment
    褒义:positive, wonder, support, useful, interesting, enthusiasm, admiring…
    中立:indifferent,  impassive, uninterested, ambivalent, neutral, apathetic, humor, 
disinterested, disinterest
SampleⅠ
    One of the most authoritative voices speaking to us today is, of course, the voice of the 
advertisers. It shouts at us from the television screen and the radio loudspeakers; waves to us from 
every page of the newspaper; signals to us from the roadside bill-boards all day and flashes to us 
in colored lights all night.(根据文章中作者的用词来判断)
    The author appears ___modern advertising.
    A. to like             B. to be indifferent to 
    C. to dislike          D. to know how to deal with
    (C)
SampleⅡ
    Millions of animals die each year on U.S. roads, the Federal Highway Administration reports. 
In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today. The main reason? 
Roadkill. 
    The writer uses the example of “ocelots” to show that_________.
    A. wild animals have become more dangerous
    B. the driving conditions have improved greatly
    C. the measure for protecting wildlife fails to work
    D. an increasing number of animals are killed in road accidents.
    (D)

【模拟试题】(答题时间:90                分钟)
                                        1
            Many G oing to College Are Not Ready(许多上大学者并未准备好)
    Only about half of this year’s high school graduates have the reading skills they need to 
succeed in college, and even fewer are prepared for college-level science and math courses, 
according to a yearly report from ACT, which produces one of the nation’s leading college 
admissions tests.
    The report, based on scores of the 2005 high school graduates who took the exam, some 1.2 
million students in all, also found that fewer than one in four met the college-readiness 
benchmarks① in all four subjects tested: reading comprehension, English, math and science.
    ACT  sets its college-readiness benchmarks — including the reading comprehension 
benchmark, which is new this year—by correlating② earlier students’ ACT scores with grades 
they actually received as college freshmen. Based on that data, the benchmarks indicate the skill 
level at which a student has a 70 percent likelihood③ of earning a C or better, and a 50 percent 
chance of ea rning a B or better.
    Among those who took the 2005 test, only 51 percent achieved the benchmark in reading, 26 
percent in science, and 41 percent in math; the figure for English was 68 percent. Results from the 
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new optional ACT writing test, which was not widely taken this year, were not included in the 
report.
    About 40 percent of the nation’s 2005 high school graduates took the ACT, and the average 
overa ll score was unchanged from the year before. Minority students make up 27 percent of all 
ACT test takers. Besides, there are also other worrying trends in the ACT report as well, including 
a continuing decline in the percentage of students planning to major in engineering, computer 
science and education.
Notes:
    ① benchmark  n.  基准
    ② correlate  v.  联系
    ③ likelihood  n.  可能性
Choose the best answers according to the above:
  1. The report from ACT mainly tells readers the problem that ______.
    A. few minority students graduates took ACT
    B. many who intend to go to college are not ready
    C. the college-readiness benchmarks is high this year
    D. the tests for some subjects are too difficult
  2. According to the benchmarks in 2005, about how many students will not earn C?
    A. 30 percent.      B. 70 percent.      C. 50 percent.       D. 26 percent.
  3. Which of the following pictures can correctly show the numbers of the students who achieve 
the benchmark in different subjects?


       A.                               B.


       C.                                D. 
  4. Which of the followings can be found in the report from ACT in 2005?
    A. The report about the writing test is very objective.
    B. More boy students are not good at science and math.
    C. The percentage of students majoring science declined.
    D. The average score of 2005 ACT participants changed greatly.

                                        2
                               Father’s Day(父亲节)
    The United States is one of the few countries in the world that has an official day on which 
fathers are honored by their children. On the third Sunday in June, fathers all across the United 
States are given presents, treated to dinner or otherwise made to feel special.
    However, the idea for creating a day for children to honor their fathers began in Spokane, 
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Washington. A woman by the name of Sonora Smart Dodd thought of the idea for Father’s Day 
while l istening to a Mother’s Day sermon① in 1909. Having been raised by her father, Henry 
Jackson Smart, after her mother died, Sonora wanted her father to know how special he was to her. 
It was her father that made all the parental sacrifices② and was, in the eyes of his daughter, a 
selfless and loving man. Sonora’s father was born in June, so she chose to hold the first Father’s 
Day celebration in Spikane, Washington on the 19th of June, 1910.
    I n 1924 President Calvin Coolidge declared the third Sunday in June as Father’s Day. Roses 
are the Father’s Day flowers: red to be worn for a living father and white if the father has died.
    When children can’t visit their fathers or take them out to dinner, they send a greeting card. 
Traditionally, fathers prefer greeting cards that are not too sentimental③. Most greeting cards are 
too special so fathers laugh when they open them. Some give heartfelt thanks for being there 
whenever the child needed Dad.
Notes:
    ① sermon  v.  布道
    ② sacrifices  n.  牺牲
    ③ sentimental  adj.  感伤的
Choose the best answers according to the above:
  1. The United States is special in Father’s Day because ______.
    A. many people celebrate the day                B. only America celebrates the day
    C. America makes it an official day              D. all men are honored in America
  2. At first, Father’s Day was fixed on June 19th because ______.
    A. Sonora honored her father on her father’s birthday
    B. Sonora’s birthday was June 19
    C. it was decided by the president at that time
    D. her mother died on June 19
  3. How many years has passed before Father’s Day became an official day since the father’s 
day was celebrated?
    A. 4        B. 10          C. 14           D. 24
  4. According to the passage, on Father’s Day,  ______.
    A. people will wear the same flowers to honor their fathers
    B. only daughters wear red flowers to honor their fathers
    C. children must go home to honor their fathers
    D. fathers are often honored in different ways
  5. According to the passage, we can infer that Henry Jackson Smart ______.
    A. was very kind to anyone
    B. did a lot for his daughter
    C. was the first father honored in 1924
    D. always help others by giving money

                                        3
         Greenland is Shrinking at Surprising Rate(格陵兰岛正在以惊人的速度缩小)
    A new  study shows one of the largest glaciers① in Greenland is becoming smaller and 
speeding to the sea faster than scientists expected. If it continues, Greenland itself could become 
much smaller during this century and global seas could rise as much as 3 feet.
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    The rates② of change that we’re noticing are much higher than expected. If these rates 
continue, it is not unlikely that Greenland could shrink③ by several tens of percent this century. 
However, it’s not known how quickly this coastal response of the Greenland ice sheet melting will 
have an effect on the vast inland ice.
    Greenland is the world’s largest island, covering an area more than three times the size of 
Texas. Some 81 percent of it is covered by ice, and there are many glaciers. Glaciers are like slow-
moving rivers of ice. Where a glacier meets the sea, its weight keeps it firmly resting on the 
bottom. A glacier’s front is the point where the water is deep enough that the glacier floats. 
    Since the 1970s, the front of Helheim stayed in the same place. Then it began melting rapidly, 
moving back 4.5 miles from 2001 through this past summer. It has also grown thinner, from top to 
bottom, by more than 130 feet since 2001. And over these past four years, its trip to the sea has 
sped up from about 70 feet per day to nearly 110. 
    The melting is driven by a warmer climate. Temperatures in Greenland have risen more than 
five degrees Fahrenheit in the last decade. Since most of Greenland’s ice is on land, seas will rise 
as the ice melts. If all Greenland’s ice sheet melted, oceans would be 15-20 feet higher. Nobody 
expects that to happen anytime soon. 
Notes:
    ① glacier  n.  冰川
    ② rate  n.  比率
    ③ shrink  v.  缩小
Choose the best answers according to the above:
  1. Which of the following about the glaciers is TRUE?
    A. Glaciers only lie in Greenland.


    B. Water in glaciers is more than sea water.[来源:学科网 ZXXK]
    C. Glaciers sometimes float on the water.  
    D. Glaciers can increase the water level of lakes.
  2. According to the text, we know that Greenland ______.


    A. belongs to Canada                  [来源:学科网]
    B. is the largest island in North America
    C. is all covered with glaciers
    D. is sinking under the sea level
  3. Which of the following may be the result of the disappearing of Greenland glaciers?
    A. The climate of the world will be warmer.
    B. The glaciers in other area will be bigger.
    C. It will be easy for explorers to visit the island.
    D. Some coastal cities may be under the sea.

                                        4
                    Five-Star Hotel Under the Sea(海下五星级饭店)
    President Bush may talk about a plan to Mars, but Bruce Jones thinks there is still a healthy 
thirst for exploration into underwater worlds on our own planet. After growing up with a 
grandfather in the marine construction① business, Jones quickly got a feel for the water. He started 
diving at age 9 and, by the 1980s, began offering advice for those interested in the submarine② 
                  中国现代教育网     www.30edu.com  全国最大教师交流平台

business. By 1993, he was running his own company, U.S. Submarines, which designs and builds 
submarines for others.
    Jones has $40 million spent in building a hotel where the most expensive rooms will be 50 
feet under the sea off Eleuthera Island in the Bahamas. Unlike the Jules Undersea Lodge — the 
only undersea hotel now, just off the coast of Key Largo, Fla. — guests at the Poseidon won’t 
need to put on a wet suit to their rooms. They also won’t need to worry about changing pressure 
levels since the rooms will be kept at above-surface pressure. Instead, they can move easily to 
their $1,500-a-night underwater rooms by escalator③.
    “I think there are a large number of people who would be interested,” said Jones, “including 
anyone who is looking for a different experience.”
    Each room will feature strong walls that look out onto coral④ gardens. There will be controls 
in each room that guests can use to change the lighting of the underwater worlds outside their 
windows and to provide food to fish swimming just outside. It sounds exciting— but will it 
happen? It’s hard to say. 
    “By now I envisioned⑤ we’d have whole underwater cities,” Cooper said. “It’s about time 
some of these visions became reality.”
Notes:
    ① marine construction  海洋建筑
    ② submarine  adj. 海下的
    ③ escalator  n.  自动梯
    ④ coral  n.  珊瑚
    ⑤ envision  v.  展望
Choose the best answers according to the above:
  1. The first paragraph takes President Bush for example in order to ______.
    A. praise President Bush’s plan to Mars
    B. humorously introduce the main subject to readers
    C. support President Bush’s plan to Mars
    D. show Bruce Jones is against President Bush’s plan
  2. According to the text, who had a great effect on Bruce Jones?
    A. His father.     B. His friends.       C. His grandfather      D. His grandmother
  3. According to Bruce Jones’s undersea hotel, we know that ______.
    A. fish outside can be seen through the hotel’s walls
    B. the hotel has been built and came into use
    C. it will be easy to swim into the underwater rooms
    D. visitors will have to wear wet suits against water
  4. According to Cooper’s words, his attitudes towards the underwater hotels are ______.
    A. disappointed       B. critical       C. objective      D. hopeful
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【试题答案】
                                        1
  1. B  本篇文章主要是说美国的高中毕业生所参加的                   ACT  考试成绩不理想,上大学的分
数低,B    说的就是该意思。
  2. A  由文章第三段最后一句可知。


  3. D  由文章的第四段可知。[来源:Z&xx&k.Com]
  4. C  由文章的最后一段可知。
                                        2
  1. C  细节理解题。由文章的第一段的第一句可知。
  2. A  推理判断题。由文章第二段的第             5 句可推之。
  3. C  数字计算题。由第二段的最后一句和第三段的第一句可知。
  4. D  细节判断题。由文章的最后两段可知。
  5. B   推理判断题。由文章的第           2 段可知她的父亲无私、仁慈,她的母亲死后,是她的
父亲把她养大的,因此可以推知她的父亲对她一定付出了很多。
                                        3
  1. C  细节判断题。由文章第三段的最后一句                “A glacier’s front is the point where the water 
is deep enough that the glacier floats.”可知。
  2. B   细节理解题。由文章第三段的第一句可知,既然是世界上的第一大岛,当然也是
北美洲的第一大岛。
  3. D  推理判断题。根据文意,A、B、C             三个选项都与之不存在联系。
                                        4
  1. B  推理判断题。第一段的开头利用这一反一正的对比,幽默地引入文章的主题。
  2. C  细节理解题。由文章的第一段的第二句话可知。
  3. A  细节判断题。由文章的第二段和第四段可知。
  4. D  推理判断题。由文章的最后一段可知,他对此是充满希望的,但是由                            envision 来判
断,那只是他个人的看法,并不一定是客观的。
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