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2018高考必备语法——同位语从句

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同位语从句同位语从句
1. 同位语the Appositive
    同位语是句子成分的一种, 它位于名
  词、代词后面, 说明它们的性质和情
  况, 它可以由名词、代词、名词性短
  语或从句充当。
同位语的表现形式有以下几种:
(1) 名词
      Tom, our monitor, is a handsome 
boy. 
(2) 代词
      I myself will do the experiment.
(3) 数词
      She is the oldest among them six.
(4) 从句
      He told me the news that the plane had 
  exploded.                                                                 
  他告诉我飞机爆炸的消息。
(5) 由such as, that is引导
      Some subjects, such as maths and physics, 
  are very difficult to learn.                              
  某些学科,例如数学和物理,是很难学的。
2. 同位语从句the Appositive clause
(1) 同位语从句的定义
      在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为
同位语从句。同位语从句是名词性从句
的一种。它在句中起同位语的作用。 
 它一般放在fact, news, idea, truth , 
hope , problem, information, belief, 
thought, doubt, promise, question 等名
词的后面, 对前面的名词作进一步的解
释, 说明前面名词的具体含义。引导同
位语从句的词有连词that, 连接副词
how, when, where, whether, what等。
e.g. The hope that he may recover is not 
   gone yet.
       The problem whether we should 
   continue to do the experiment has 
   been solved.
       I have no idea when he will come 
   back. 
 注意:
       同位语从句有时被别的词把它
       和名词隔开:

  The story goes that William Tell killed 
the king with an arrow.
  Word came that their team had won.
⑵ 同位语从句的表现形式:
① 由that引导
          The fact that you haven’t 
   enough time to do the work is 
   simply unbelievable.
          The hope that he may come 
   here is not gone yet.
② 由whether引导
     The question whether we need 
   more time to do the work has not 
   been discussed.
③ 由when引导
      I have no idea when they will go.
⑶ 有时可用 namely (即), that is to 
  say (也就是说), in other words (
  换句话说    ), that is (那就是), for 
  example 等引出同位语, 说明其
  前面的名词或代词。有时同位
  语直接跟在名词或代词的后面
  。
4.虚拟语气在同位语从句中的应用:
名词demand, suggestion, proposal, advice 等词
后的同位语从句的语气要用虚拟语气,
结构为 should + do, should 可省略  

1.The suggestion that he _____B  at the meeting was 
agreed to by most people.
A.should put forward       B. put forward
C.should look forward     D.looked forward
2.The suggestion that we _____C  to picnic on
 Sunday was agreed to by most people.
A went B.would go C.go D.were allowed to go
(5)that在同位语从句          与定语从句的区别区别

 同位语从句              定语从句
 that(连词)只起连接的      that(关系代词) 充当一定的
 作用,不充当句子成分         句子成分(主,宾,表)

 同位语从句与前面的名         定语从句对先行词起修饰
 词是同位关系,表示这         作用,表示“…的”。
 个名词的内容
 同位语从句的that 一般      而定语从句中的关系代词
 不能省                that,当其在从句中做宾
                    语时,常常可以省略
(I)试比较下面两个例句: 
1.The suggestion that he raised at the meeting 
is very good.
(that引导定语从句, 作宾语, 可以省略) 
2.The suggestion that the students should have 
plenty of exercise is very good.
 (that引导同位语从句,在从句中不担
 当任何成分,但不可以省略) 
  
辨别下列从句是定语从句还是同位语从句
1.We heard the news that our team had won.
                  同位语从句
2.We must face the  fact that we had spent all 
our money.        同位语从句
3. The news that he told me yesterday was 
false. 定语从句

                                同位语从句

4. I have no doubt that he will come soon. 
• 同位语:修饰名词的内容
• 定语从句:对前面的名词进行修饰,限
 定。
• The news that our team had won came.
同位语从句
The news that/which he heard was true.
定语从句
ThankThank  youyou  
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